United States sanctions two of Hezbollah’s construction companies. Both are related to Jihad al-Bina, a major association in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure

Cardiac diseases hospital of Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital (which belongs to Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation), constructed by Arch Consulting (website of Arch Consulting).

Cardiac diseases hospital of Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital (which belongs to Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation), constructed by Arch Consulting (website of Arch Consulting).

Al-Batoul Hospital of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization, constructed by Arch Consulting. The emblem of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization is seen on the building.

Al-Batoul Hospital of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization, constructed by Arch Consulting. The emblem of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization is seen on the building.

Ragheb Harb Hospital, constructed by Arch Consulting for the Islamic Health Organization (website of Arch Consulting). In practice, however, as can be seen at the entrance to the building, the hospital belongs to the Iranian Red Crescent.

Ragheb Harb Hospital, constructed by Arch Consulting for the Islamic Health Organization (website of Arch Consulting). In practice, however, as can be seen at the entrance to the building, the hospital belongs to the Iranian Red Crescent.

Senior officials of Meamar Construction at a ceremony marking the 25th anniversary of its establishment. The photo shows the company senior officials alongside MP Mohammad Raad (Hezbollah) and Mohammad Fneish, Minister of State for Administrative Reform (Hezbollah) (National News Agency, January 15, 2014)

Senior officials of Meamar Construction at a ceremony marking the 25th anniversary of its establishment. The photo shows the company senior officials alongside MP Mohammad Raad (Hezbollah) and Mohammad Fneish, Minister of State for Administrative Reform (Hezbollah) (National News Agency, January 15, 2014)

Overview

On September 17, 2020, the US Department of the Treasury imposed sanctions on two Lebanese companies, Arch Consulting and Meamar Construction. According to the US Department of the Treasury, this is because these companies are owned, controlled or directed by Hezbollah. In addition to these two companies, sanctions were also imposed on Sultan Khalifah As’ad, a Hezbollah Executive Council official who is closely associated with both companies (US Department of the Treasury website, September 17, 2020).

Sanctions imposed on Arch Consulting and Meamar Construction (US Department of the Treasury, September 17, 2020)

Sanctions imposed on Arch Consulting and Meamar Construction
(US Department of the Treasury, September 17, 2020)

  • The two sanctioned companies are part of an extensive network of commercial companies controlled or owned by Hezbollah. Those companies have two main goals: support Hezbollah’s military activity and make profits from projects and selling goods (mainly in medicine, fuel and construction) in order to finance Hezbollah’s civilian and military activity[1]. An examination of these companies reveals that their key figures are Hezbollah operatives or supporters, and that most of their activity takes place in Shiite population areas (southern Lebanon, Beirut’s southern suburb, and the Bekaa Valley).
  • According to the ITIC’s information, Arch Consulting and Meamar Construction are closely connected to Hezbollah’s Jihad al-Bina Association (which has already been sanctioned by the US). This is one of the most important foundations in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure (see Appendix). It is engaged in rebuilding following war damage and reconstructing buildings in the wake of military incidents and wars. In addition, this association conducts varied activity among members of the Shiite sect in agriculture, industry, education and welfare. This activity involves high costs, most of which are funded by Iran. In the ITIC’s assessment, the commercial companies related to Jihad al-Bina were intended to serve as Hezbollah’s executive arm, implementing construction projects and making profits that will support the Jihad al-Bina activity.
  • Examination of the activities of Arch Consulting and Meamar Construction reveals two additional insights:
    • Ties with UN organizations: In the past, these two companies sanctioned by the US carried out projects in Lebanon for several UN organizations: the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), UNRWA, and the UN Development Program (UNDP). It can be assumed that these companies will try to retain their commercial ties with these institutions.
    • Activity in the Ivory Coast: Arch Consulting carried out three projects in the Ivory Coast for the Ghadir Association. The association operates among the Shiite population in the Ivory Coast, which numbers about 26,000. The association has an infrastructure of organizations and institutions in various civilian spheres of activity. In May 2009, the American administration imposed sanctions on two Hezbollah supporters, one of them Sheikh Abd al-Mun’em Qubaysi, who was the imam of the Grand Mosque built by the Ghadir Association in Abidjan. In August 2009, Qubaysi was deported. Hezbollah and Amal nurture relations with the Shiite population in West African countries due to financial donations given by wealthy Shiite businessmen.
Arch Consulting: Overview

Arch Consulting was registered at the Lebanese Registrar of Companies on June 6, 2006. Its registration address is Harat Hreik, Al-Miqdad St., Al-Huda building, Beirut. This address is identical to that of Meamar Construction (see below), which has also been sanctioned by the US. According to its registration, the company is entitled to engage in engineering research, supervision and management of construction and implementing construction work (Lebanese Registrar of Companies, June 6, 2006). The company employs at least 10 engineers who are members of the Beirut Engineers Association. According to the US Department of the Treasury, the company is owned and run by Hezbollah. According to the ITIC’s information, there is a strong relationship between the company and Hezbollah, especially with Jihad al-Bina, an important Hezbollah association engaged in construction and social projects[2].

Emblem of Arch Consulting (Arch Consulting website)
Emblem of Arch Consulting (Arch Consulting website)
Senior figures in the company
  • Several people related to the establishment and operation of the company registered at the Lebanese Registrar of Companies (Lebanese Registrar of Companies, November 1, 1993). Following is basic information on these people and their affiliation with Hezbollah:
  • Founders and partners:
      • Ja’afar Moussa Moussa, a Lebanese engineer, formerly in charge of the Nabatieh region on behalf of Jihad al-Bina (Ilaf, August 23, 2006). He represented Meamar Construction at a ceremony marking the transfer of a waste sorting facility in Nabatieh in October 2013 (National News Agency, October 24, 2013).
      • Walid Ali Jaber, CEO of the company (website of Hezbollah’s Education Mobilization, a foundation engaged in the indoctrination of Shiite students).
      • Mohammad Haidar Qanso, a Lebanese engineer. He was a candidate in the 2016 elections to the Al-Duweir Municipality for the Hezbollah and Amal list (National News Agency, May 21, 2016).
    • CEO and authorized signatory: Walid Ali Jaber (see above).
    • Attorney: Osama Abbas Rimal (the same attorney as for Meamar Construction, see below).
  • Registration details of Arch Consulting resemble those of Meamar Construction: the same attorney, the same address as well as the same floor in the building, the same engineer related to both companies. The connection between both companies and Jihad al-Bina suggests the possibility that they are one and the same company. This suspicion is enhanced in view of a past report that Arch Consulting was registered in 2005 after operating under the name of Jihad al-Bina Research Institute as an integral part of Hezbollah’s Jihad al-Bina Association (SOAS University of London website, 2015).
Projects carried out by Arch Consulting
  • Arch Consulting has an official website and a presence on social media. The website includes a list of 69 projects carried out by the company since its establishment. An examination of the list of projects reveals that the company is closely related to the Shiite population in general and to Hezbollah in particular:
    • A total of 14 out of the 69 projects were carried out for institutions belonging to Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure: Al-Ahed Soccer Club[3] (one project), the Islamic Health Organization[4] (four projects), the Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital, Atlas Holding (which belongs to the Martyrs Foundation, four projects), and the Al-Mahdi Schools, which belong to the Islamic institution for Education and Teaching (five projects).
Cardiac diseases hospital of Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital (which belongs to Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation), constructed by Arch Consulting (website of Arch Consulting).    Al-Batoul Hospital of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization, constructed by Arch Consulting. The emblem of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization is seen on the building.
Right: Al-Batoul Hospital of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization, constructed by Arch Consulting. The emblem of Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization is seen on the building. Left: Cardiac diseases hospital of Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital (which belongs to Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation), constructed by Arch Consulting (website of Arch Consulting).
Ragheb Harb Hospital, constructed by Arch Consulting for the Islamic Health Organization (website of Arch Consulting). In practice, however, as can be seen at the entrance to the building, the hospital belongs to the Iranian Red Crescent.
Ragheb Harb Hospital, constructed by Arch Consulting for the Islamic Health Organization (website of Arch Consulting). In practice, however, as can be seen at the entrance to the building, the hospital belongs to the Iranian Red Crescent.
  • The company carried out 44 projects for institutions and figures indirectly related to Hezbollah and the Shiite population. These include municipalities in Shiite regions (31 projects); the Kuwaiti Foundation for Arab Economic Development (12 projects), which participated in the reconstruction of Beirut’s southern suburb after the Second Lebanon War (Al-Watan, May 11, 2012); Al-Tawhid Association, which is related to Wiam Wahhab, a Druze politician of the March 8 Alliance (one project); and the Lebanese businessman Rida Abu Khalil, a Hezbollah supporter (one project)[5].
  • The company carried out projects for international institutions such as the Red Cross, UNRWA and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (see below). In addition, it carried out projects for private people and businesses.
  • Special attention should be paid to projects carried out for Hezbollah’s civilian institutions in Sunni and Druze regions, allegedly out of sectarian, political and demographic considerations:
    • Two projects were carried out for Hezbollah institutions in the Armoun region between Damour and Beirut, which is populated by Sunni Muslims. These were a housing project carried out for Atlas Holding, one of the companies of the Martyrs Foundation, and a psychiatric hospital for Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization.

On August 27, 2020, a clash took place in the neighborhood of Khaldeh, on Beirut’s southern outskirts, when Shiites raised a sign on the occasion of Ashura[6]. During the clash, there were exchanges of fire and main roads were blocked in the area. Two Sunni residents were killed (El-Nashra News Agency, August 27, 2020). Following the clash in Khaldeh, the Janoubia website, opposed to Hezbollah, reported that “it is now clear that Hezbollah has set its sights on Khaldeh because of its strategic location on the southern entrance to Beirut. The Sunni tribes […] felt years ago the danger of Hezbollah breaking into the area when [Hezbollah] built housing projects surrounding Khaldeh in the direction of Armoun. In addition, Hezbollah built mosques and Hussainiyas” (Janoubia, August 28, 2020).

  • Arch Consulting built seven projects on Mount Lebanon, the Druze stronghold, mainly projects in towns and villages along the Beirut-Damascus highway (constructing villas and renovating roads in Qala, Shabania, Bhamdoun, Falougha, and Hamaneh). These projects may have been executed out of a consideration of acquiring influence in a strategic region where Druze and other non-Shiite sects are living.[7]
Projects in West Africa

Arch Consulting carried out three projects in the Ivory Coast for the Ghadir Association. This association operated in Abidjan on behalf of the senior Shiite cleric Sayyid Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah. Since his death, his son Ali Fadlallah has headed the board of directors of the Fadlallah Institutions, including the Ghadir Association in the Ivory Coast. It appears that Hezbollah has supporters among the Shiite population of the Ivory Coast and has ties with the Ghadir Association.

  • The Ghadir Association, which operates in the Ivory Coast, incorporates organizations and institutions of educational and religious nature: the Al-Zahra Cultural Complex (which includes a mosque, an auditorium, and a library of religious texts); the Ghadir school network (which includes classes for studying Arabic, French, English, local contents of the Ivory Coast, and classes of religion, including parts of the Lebanese education curriculum); the Ghadir Scout Movement, whose uniform and emblem are identical to those of Hezbollah’s Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in Lebanon (see photos); Imam al-Kazem Medical Center (which offers subsidized medical services); and a travel agency specializing in pilgrimage tours. The association also works to commemorate Shiite holidays as well as Lebanese national holidays among the Shiite-Lebanese community in the Ivory Coast (website of the Ghadir Association).
Emblem of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in Lebanon (Twitter account of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts)    Emblem of the Ghadir Scouts in the Ivory Coast (website of the Ghadir Association).
Right: Emblem of the Ghadir Scouts in the Ivory Coast (website of the Ghadir Association). Left: Emblem of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in Lebanon (Twitter account of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts)
Troop leaders in the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in Lebanon (Facebook page of the General Commission of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts, August 5, 2020). The picture of Imam Khomeini is visible on the uniform of the troop leader on the left.     Troop leader and a scout in the Ghadir Scouts in the Ivory Coast (website of the Ghadir Association). The picture of Imam Khomeini and the Lebanese flag alongside the flag of the Ivory Coast are visible on the troop leader’s white uniform.
Right: Troop leader and a scout in the Ghadir Scouts in the Ivory Coast (website of the Ghadir Association). The picture of Imam Khomeini and the Lebanese flag alongside the flag of the Ivory Coast are visible on the troop leader’s white uniform. Left: Troop leaders in the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in Lebanon (Facebook page of the General Commission of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts, August 5, 2020). The picture of Imam Khomeini is visible on the uniform of the troop leader on the left.
  • In May 2009, the American administration imposed sanctions on Sheikh Abd al-Mun’em Qubaysi, who was the imam of the Grand Mosque built by Ghadir Association in Abidjan. The statement released by the US Department of the Treasury describes the sheikh and another activist by the name of Kassim Tajideen as Hezbollah supporters. In August 2009, the Ivory Coast authorities deported Qubaysi (Ya Sour website, May 28, 2009; Al-Akhbar, August 10, 2009).

Statement by the US Department of the Treasury

Statement by the US Department of the Treasury

Sheikh Abd al-Mun’em Qubaysi (Ya Sour website, April 14, 2012)    Children’s activity on the anniversary of the birth of Prophet Muhammad at the court of the mosque at the Sayyida Zahra Complex in Abidjan, the Ivory Coast (Ghadir Association website). The mosque was built by the Ghadir Association. The imam of the mosque, Sheikh Abd al-Mun’em Qubaysi, was designated by the US administration as a Hezbollah supporter, included in the list of US sanctions and deported in 2009 (see below).
Right: Children’s activity on the anniversary of the birth of Prophet Muhammad at the court of the mosque at the Sayyida Zahra Complex in Abidjan, the Ivory Coast (Ghadir Association website). The mosque was built by the Ghadir Association. The imam of the mosque, Sheikh Abd al-Mun’em Qubaysi, was designated by the US administration as a Hezbollah supporter, included in the list of US sanctions and deported in 2009 (see below). Left: Sheikh Abd al-Mun’em Qubaysi (Ya Sour website, April 14, 2012)
Activity in other fields
  • Arch Consulting maintains relations with other companies belonging to Hezbollah and with institutions closely related to Hezbollah. In 2009, the company received a plaque of appreciation from the student council of the Faculty of Architecture and Engineering at the Lebanese University, where Hezbollah maintains intensive activity among the students[8], for the company’s involvement in a studies exhibition and the council’s activity. In November 2015, a delegation of the Iranian Ministry of Education visited at the company offices and in September 2017, the company sent representatives to the International Exhibition for the Rebuilding of Syria (Arch Consulting website).
Plaque of appreciation from the Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital (the Martyrs Foundation, whose emblem appears on the plaque) to the CEO of Arch Consulting (Arch Consulting website)  Certificate of appreciation from the Al-Mahdi Schools to Arch Consulting
Right: Certificate of appreciation from the Al-Mahdi Schools to Arch Consulting. Left: Plaque of appreciation from the Al-Rasoul al-Azam Hospital (the Martyrs Foundation, whose emblem appears on the plaque) to the CEO of Arch Consulting (Arch Consulting website)
Response to US sanctions
  • In response to the US sanctions, Arch Consulting issued a statement to the effect that it is an engineering company for research and consulting, established by senior Lebanese engineers and administration officials and classified as a national research company by many government ministries and official institutions. The company added that it collaborates with government ministries, municipalities, and the private sector in accordance with legal contracting procedures in practice, and tenders. It expressed its puzzlement at the fact that the US administration accuses it of corruption and getting rich at the expense of the Lebanese people, while research companies of its type hardly survive the current economic situation, which is deteriorating due to the “American siege” (Hezbollah’s Al-Manar TV, September 18, 2020).
Meamar Construction: Overview

Meamar Construction SARL was registered at the Lebanese Registrar of Companies on November 1, 1993. Its registration address is Harat Hreik, Al-Miqdad St., Al-Huda building, Beirut. According to its registration, the company is entitled to engage in diverse engineering and construction activity, including various types of contract work, operating quarries, trading in and manufacturing of construction materials, setting up water and sewage networks, treating waste etc. (Lebanese Registrar of Companies, November 1, 1993). The company employs at least seven engineers who are members of the Beirut Engineers Association. According to the US Department of the Treasury, the company is owned and run by Hezbollah. According to the ITIC’s information, there is a strong connection between the company and Hezbollah, especially with the Jihad al-Bina Association.

Emblem of Meamar Construction (Al-Manar TV, September 18, 2020)

Emblem of Meamar Construction
(Al-Manar TV, September 18, 2020)

  • Several people related to the establishment and operation of the company registered at the Lebanese Registrar of Companies (Lebanese Registrar of Companies, November 1, 1993). Following is basic information on these people and their affiliation with Hezbollah:
    • Founders:
      • Sultan Khalifah As’ad was a former manager of Jihad al-Bina (Al-Hurra TV, January 10, 2019). He was also a co-founder of the Al-Baqiyat al-Salihat[9] Association (June 2005), related to Hezbollah (Hezbollah website, September 13, 2011; Al-Manar TV, April 28, 2017)[10]. According to one of the reports, he is the financial assistant of the chairman of Hezbollah’s Executive Council (imlebanon website, September 17, 2020). The Risalat Association, which produces cultural events and is related to Hezbollah[11], operates out of a building owned by Sultan Khalifah As’ad in the Harat Hreik neighborhood (Lebanese Gazette, December 27, 2007). The US Department of the Treasury imposed sanctions on Sultan Khalifah, describing him as a Hezbollah Executive Council official who is closely associated with both Hezbollah companies on which sanctions were imposed.
      • Two other founders are the engineers Abbas Ibrahim Nasser and Hassan Ali al-Balaghi. It appears that Hezbollah intentionally included in the list of founders two professionals who are not necessarily affiliated with it in order to obfuscate the company’s affiliation with Hezbollah.
    • Partners:
      • Burhan Hassan Qataya, a Lebanese engineer. In the years 2008-2012 he served as head of the architecture department in the Wa’ad project, the reconstruction of Beirut’s southern suburb following the Second Lebanon War, led by Jihad al-Bina (Al-Khiyam local news website, April 2, 2008; Al-Akhbar, July 14, 2012).
      • Hassan Suleiman Madlaj, a Lebanese engineer (website of the Guide of International Companies)
      • Mahmoud Abbas Qassem. No information was found about him.
      • Ali Yusuf Farhat, a Lebanese engineer (website of the Guide of International Companies).
    • Managers and authorized signatories:
      • Burhan Hassan Qataya (see above).
      • Hussein Muhammad Khayr al-Din, engineer, company CEO. In 2008-2012, he was in charge of the renovation unit in the Wa’ad project for the reconstruction of Beirut’s southern suburb (Hezbollah website, June 17, 2008; Al-Akhbar, August 13, 2010).
    • Attorney: Osama Abbas Rimal. No information was found about him.

Senior officials of Meamar Construction at a ceremony marking the 25th anniversary of its establishment. The photo shows the company senior officials alongside MP Mohammad Raad (Hezbollah) and Mohammad Fneish, Minister of State for Administrative Reform (Hezbollah) (National News Agency, January 15, 2014)
Senior officials of Meamar Construction at a ceremony marking the 25th anniversary of its establishment. The photo shows the company senior officials alongside MP Mohammad Raad (Hezbollah) and Mohammad Fneish, Minister of State for Administrative Reform (Hezbollah) (National News Agency, January 15, 2014)

Projects carried out by Meamar Construction
  • Meamar Construction has no active website and no significant presence on social media. Therefore, details were found on relatively few projects carried out by the company (15). The projects in which the company was involved are in areas with mostly Shiite population and with Hezbollah influence: southern Lebanon (8 projects); Beirut’s southern suburb (5); and the Bekaa Valley (2).
  • Some of the projects carried out by the company: construction of a hall in Hezbollah’s Al-Mahdi high school in the Al-Hadath neighborhood, in Beirut’s southern suburb; construction of an open market in Nabatieh, in collaboration with the UN Development Program (UNDP); construction of public buildings and setting up and operating waste treatment centers in southern Lebanon (website of the Al-Mahdi schools, no date; website of the water company of southern Lebanon, no date; website of the Nabatieh Municipality, August 2, 2014; website of the Dahiya union of municipalities, no date; Twitter account of Abu al-Fadl Shuman, September 18, 2019; @hussein_961 Twitter account, September 26, 2020; website of the Development and Construction Council in the Lebanese government).
Response to US sanctions
  • In response to the American decision, the company released a statement, according to which it is a Lebanese company operating under license since 1988 in contract projects in the public and private sectors, receiving projects in accordance with tenders with full transparency. The company then accuses the US administration of responsibility for Lebanon’s suffering and stresses that it will persist in its activity for decades to come (Al-Manar TV, September 18, 2020).
  • In protest against the inclusion of the company in the list of US sanctions, Hezbollah supporters launched a tagging campaign on Twitter[12] under the title #Meamar_builds_and_Washington_destroys. Such tagging campaigns are a familiar pattern of activity by Hezbollah supporters on social media.
Carrying out projects in Lebanon for UN organizations

The two companies owned by Hezbollah which were subjected to US sanctions carried out several projects in Lebanon for UN organizations: the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA), and the UN Development Program (UNDP).

  • Following are examples:
    • Arch Consulting planned UNHCR’s center in Zahle, the Bekaa Valley. In addition, it rebuilt 40 buildings which were damaged in the area, with a total area of 80-100,000 square meters. The budget of the projects for UNHCR was $6 million (Arch Consulting website, no date). Arch Consulting advised UNRWA on setting up sewage systems in two refugee camps, Shatila in Beirut and Ayn al-Hilweh in southern Lebanon, for a budget whose amount is unknown (Arch Consulting website, no date).
    • Meamar Construction was involved in a joint project of the Nabatieh Municipality, the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture, and the UN Development Program (UNDP), for the construction of a vegetable market in the city of Nabatieh. The work on the project started in August 2014 (website of the Nabatieh Municipality, August 2, 2014). In addition, the UNDP’s website mentions other projects of the UN Development Program, in which Meamar Construction was involved: rebuilding a school in Zahle ($197,056); setting up a sewage network in Harat Saida ($297,861); setting up a water network in Reihan ($96,201); constructing a medical center in Al-Murayja ($83,994); constructing sports facilities in the Bekaa Valley ($243,304); setting up a water tank in Al-Kharaeb ($138,258); work in a public park in Burj Hamoud ($87,137); and renovating a school in Naameh ($219,809) (UNDP website, review of contracts for 2015). It may be assumed that Meamar Construction was also involved in additional UNDP projects.
Appendix
The ITIC’s publications on Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure (February 2019-October 2020)
  • The ITIC is engaged in a research project whose aim is to map and analyze Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure. So far, the following publications have been issued as part of this project:
  • Hezbollah launched a campaign to raise money for military purposes using the Islamic Resistance Support Association (February 2019)
  • Funding Terrorism: The method for transferring donations to Hezbollah through the Islamic Resistance Support Association (March 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation: purpose, mode of operation and funding methods (April 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Foundation for the Wounded: purpose, modus operandi and funding methods (May 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s socioeconomic foundations: Al-Qard al-Hasan, a quasi-bank that provides interest-free loans, mainly to members of the Shiite community (June 2019)
  • Jihad al-Bina Association in Lebanon: A Hezbollah social foundation engaged in construction and social projects among the Shiite community, being a major component in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure (June 2019)
  • The Imam al-Mahdi Scouts Association: Hezbollah’s youth movement which indoctrinates youth with Iranian radical Shiite Islam and serves as a source of youngsters who join Hezbollah (July 2019)
  • Hezbollah operates networks of private schools indoctrinating the Shiite community in Lebanon with the ideology of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and with loyalty to Hezbollah and the path of terrorism (July 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Iranian identity: Ceremony of Hezbollah operatives in southern Lebanon with conspicuous personality cult of Iranian Leader Ali Khamenei (July 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Education Mobilization: An institution engaged in the indoctrination of Shiite students in Lebanon’s state and private educational systems, in preparation for their joining Hezbollah upon graduation (July 2019)
  • Sports in the service of terrorism: Hezbollah’s Sports Mobilization conducts extensive sports activity, using it for indoctrinating and preparing youth to join the ranks of Hezbollah (July 2019)
  • The Islamic Health Organization: Hezbollah institution providing health services to Hezbollah operatives and the Shiite population in general as a means for gaining influence and creating a Shiite mini-state within Lebanon (August 2019)
  • Art and culture used by Hezbollah as instruments of indoctrination (August 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Women’s Organizations Unit (August 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s media empire (October 2019)
  • Resistance society: Hezbollah’s municipal activity (October 2019)
  • Jihadi tourism: visits to battle legacy sites and shahid tombs as an indoctrination tool for spreading Hezbollah’s ideology (October 2019)
  • Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, in an interview with an Iranian magazine affiliated with Supreme Leader Khamenei, emphasizes the importance of its civilian institutions (October 2019)
  • Twitter suspended accounts affiliated with Hezbollah, especially Al-Manar. However, an Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center examination revealed that Hezbollah continues to maintain significant presence on Twitter, even after the suspension (November, 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Twitter Presence (Update) (November 2019)
  • Hezbollah’s Twitter Presence (Update 2) (November 2019)
  • Soccer in the use of terrorism: Hezbollah’s Al-Ahed soccer team is used as a means by Hezbollah to increase its popularity and acquire legitimacy (December 2019)
  • Green Without Borders: a Lebanese environmental organization that collaborates with Hezbollah and supports its activity near the Israeli border (February 2020)
  • The Martyrs Foundation – Palestinian Branch: a Hezbollah foundation operating in Lebanon, used as a channel for transferring Iranian financial support to families of Palestinian shaheeds (March 2020)
  • The Association for the Revival of Resistance Legacy: A Hezbollah foundation intended to inculcate jihad and the shaheed culture within Shiite society in Lebanon (March 2020)
  • Funding terrorism: US sanctions imposed on an extensive network of Hezbollah companies supporting its military-terrorist activity (May 2020)

[1] See the ITIC's Information Bulletin, Funding terrorism: US sanctions imposed on an extensive network of Hezbollah companies supporting its military-terrorist activity” (May 2020).
[2] For further details, see the ITIC's study, “Jihad al-Bina Association in Lebanon: A Hezbollah social foundation engaged in construction and social projects among the Shiite community, being a major component in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure” (July 2019).

[3] For further details, see the ITIC's study, “Soccer in the use of terrorism: Hezbollah’s Al-Ahed soccer team is used as a means by Hezbollah to increase its popularity and acquire legitimacy” (December 2019).

[4] For further details, see the ITIC's study, “The Islamic Health Organization: Hezbollah institution providing health services to Hezbollah operatives and the Shiite population in general as a means for gaining influence and creating a Shiite mini-state within Lebanon” (August 2019).

[5] When Abu Khalil died in 2019, Hezbollah managed his funeral and gave him the title of “Shaheed of Jihad”. According to one of the signs in the funeral, he was “a man of charity and jihad” (Ya Sour website, February 14, 2019; Facebook page of the Al-Qleileh Municipality, February 15, 2019). Sheikh Ali Damoush, deputy chairman of Hezbollah’s Executive Council, spoke at an event marking a week since Abu Khalil’s death, calling him “the shaheed of jihad and diaspora” (Al-Ma’rifa website, the official website of Sheikh Ali Damoush, February 17, 2019).

[6] Day of mourning among Shiites, commemorating the death of Imam Husayn bin Ali.

[7] Druze leader Walid Jumblatt claimed that the Shiites were acquiring many lands in regions that allow connecting Shiite populations and cutting off the Druze demographic continuum between southern Lebanon and Mount Lebanon (Al-Akhbar, May 12, 2008; Al-Khiyam local news website, October 10, 2010). In August 2020, Jumblatt supporters claimed that Hezbollah had set up military positions in Druze areas (Twitter account of Hussein Nasrallah, August 13, 2020; Facebook page of the young members of the Socialist Progressive Party, August 14, 2020). However, Jumblatt himself sought to calm down the situation (Daily Lebanon, August 18, 2020). For an example of the use made by Hezbollah of its civilian infrastructure to acquire influence and for demographic expansion, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin, “Hezbollah operates networks of private schools indoctrinating the Shiite community in Lebanon with the ideology of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and with loyalty to Hezbollah and the path of terrorism” (July 2019), the section on the significance of establishing the Al-Mahdi school in the village of Al-Qatrani.

[8] For further details on the connection between the Lebanese University and Hezbollah, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin, “Estimate of Hezbollah’s fatalities during the Syrian civil war and the conclusions arising from the analysis of their identity” (March 2019).

[9] Literally, the existing good deeds (Quran, Surah 18, 46).

[10] Another co-founder is Sheikh Akram Barakat (the Lebanese Gazette, June 23, 2005), who was in charge of Hezbollah’s Culture Unit (entry on Akram Barakat in the Arabic Wikipedia).

[11] For further details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin, “Art and culture used by Hezbollah as instruments of indoctrination” (August 2019).

[12] For further details on the activity of Hezbollah supporters on social media, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin, “Hezbollah’s media empire” (September 2019).