The civilian infrastraucture established by Hezbollah among the Shiites in Lebanon: the town of Al-Khiyam

Ceremonies honoring outstanding students, organized by the Education Mobilization and Al-Khiyam municipality (Education Mobilization website, undated).

Ceremonies honoring outstanding students, organized by the Education Mobilization and Al-Khiyam municipality (Education Mobilization website, undated).

Boys and girls of Hezbollah’s Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in a parade marking the beginning of Ramadan in the town of Al-Khiyam (Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts website, undated)

Boys and girls of Hezbollah’s Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in a parade marking the beginning of Ramadan in the town of Al-Khiyam (Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts website, undated)

Boys and girls of Hezbollah’s Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in a parade marking the beginning of Ramadan in the town of Al-Khiyam (Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts website, undated)

Boys and girls of Hezbollah’s Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts in a parade marking the beginning of Ramadan in the town of Al-Khiyam (Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts website, undated)

Ceremony held by the Women’s Organizations in the Al-Khiyam Prison in 2015 to mark the anniversary of the IDF’s withdrawal from Lebanon (Ya Sour, June 2, 2015)

Ceremony held by the Women’s Organizations in the Al-Khiyam Prison in 2015 to mark the anniversary of the IDF’s withdrawal from Lebanon (Ya Sour, June 2, 2015)

Planting trees on the border with Israel close to Al-Khiyam on the initiative of Jihad al-Bina and the Al-Khiyam municipality (Lebanese News Agency, December 3, 2017). Amal movement MP Qassem Hashem is seen on the picture.

Planting trees on the border with Israel close to Al-Khiyam on the initiative of Jihad al-Bina and the Al-Khiyam municipality (Lebanese News Agency, December 3, 2017). Amal movement MP Qassem Hashem is seen on the picture.

Pool tournament held in Al-Khiyam under the auspices of the municipality and the Sports Mobilization on the Shaheed Commanders Day (Ya Sour, February 26, 2016)

Pool tournament held in Al-Khiyam under the auspices of the municipality and the Sports Mobilization on the Shaheed Commanders Day (Ya Sour, February 26, 2016)

Imam al-Mahdi scouts participating in the planting campaign having their picture taken with the Israeli town of Metula in the background.

Imam al-Mahdi scouts participating in the planting campaign having their picture taken with the Israeli town of Metula in the background.

Tree planting campaign near the Israeli-Lebanese border, not far from the town of Al-Khiyam in January 2019 (Sada Wadi al-Tim website, January 12, 2019).
Ceremony marking the anniversary of the birth of Sayyida Fatima at the Al-Imdad Association Center in Al-Khiyam (Al-Imdad Association website)

Ceremony marking the anniversary of the birth of Sayyida Fatima at the Al-Imdad Association Center in Al-Khiyam (Al-Imdad Association website)

Trip to Baalbek in the Bekaa Valley, organized by the Al-Imdad Association Center in Al-Khiyam (Al-Imdad Association website).

Trip to Baalbek in the Bekaa Valley, organized by the Al-Imdad Association Center in Al-Khiyam (Al-Imdad Association website).

Study findings

This document is part of a series of studies examining the scope and conduct of Hezbollah’s civilian institutions and the extent of their influence on the local population. As case studies, the ITIC chose several main cities and the rural areas surrounding them in the three main Shiite population centers: southern Lebanon, the southern suburb of Beirut (Dahieh), and the Bekaa Valley. In each of these three population centers, the deployment and activity of Hezbollah’s civilian institutions will be examined in comparison with those of Lebanese government institutions or Amal and other Shiite associations operating under the auspices of Hezbollah. The cities of Bint Jbeil and Nabatieh were the first two case studies. Al-Khiyam, a large Shiite town located near the border with Israel, was chosen as the third one.

  • The following are the main findings of an examination of Hezbollah’s civilian institutions in the town of Al-Khiyam and the extent of their impact on the local population:
    • Healthcare is a prominent sphere of activity in which Hezbollah enjoys dominance, although not exclusivity. As was found to be the case in Bint Jbeil and Nabatieh, the healthcare services provided by Hezbollah are of much higher quality than those provided by the Lebanese government. The healthcare sector requires large financial investments (building hospitals and running them on a day-to-day basis), but the local population’s need for the medical services provided by Hezbollah is extremely great.
    • In the field of education, one of the most prominent schools belongs to an association operating within the network of the educational, healthcare and charitable institutions of Sayyid Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, which is currently run by his son Ali. This network does not belong to Hezbollah but, in the ITIC’s assessment, it operates under the auspices of Hezbollah. Hezbollah does not have schools of its own in Al-Khiyam but its youth indoctrination institutions are active in and outside the town’s educational institutions (the Education Mobilization and the Imam al-Mahdi Scouts Movement).
    • Hezbollah has established a significant infrastructure of social institutions in and around the town of Al-Khiyam, providing a variety of services to the local population in addition to those provided by the state: activity among women, providing professional training, assisting farmers, establishing sports teams and organizing sports events, welfare activity, operating a gas station, cultural events (inculcating Iranian ideology), and jihadi tourism in what was the South Lebanon Army’s interrogation and detention facility during the Security Zone period.
    • The local mayor is affiliated with the Amal movement but works in close cooperation with Hezbollah’s municipal personnel. The Al-Khiyam municipality is a client of Hezbollah’s Arch Consulting, which has been sanctioned by the United States (the Nabatieh municipality and Hezbollah in Bint Jbeil are also clients of this company).
The structure of the study
  • The town of Al-Khiyam:
    • General characteristics
    • Security background
  • Hezbollah’s civilian institutions and those of other organizations operating in Al-Khiyam
    • Healthcare services in Al-Khiyam
    • The education system in Al-Khiyam:
      • Overview
      • Issa Bin Mariam School
      • Additional educational institutions
    • Hezbollah’s activity among adolescents:
    • Education Mobilization
    • The Imam al-Mahdi Scouts
  • Hezbollah’s other civilian institutions in Al-Khiyam:
    • Overview
    • Women’s organizations
    • Jihad al-Bina
    • The Sports Mobilization
    • Municipal activity
    • Gas station belonging to Hezbollah’s chain of gas stations
    • Welfare services
    • Culture
    • Jihadi tourism at the detention facility
The town of Al-Khiyam
Overview

The town of Al-Khiyam is located in the eastern part of southern Lebanon, on a hill 750 m above sea level, above the Marjayoun Valley. The population of the town is estimated at 30-35 thousand, mainly Shiites, but there are also Christian minorities (Orthodox Greeks, Maronites, Protestants and Catholics). The main source of livelihood of the town’s residents is agriculture, along with small workshops in various industries (Al-Khiyam municipality website; Arabic Wikipedia entry “Al-Khiyam (Marjayoun)”; Al-Khiyam local news website, October 19, 2013). A few government institutions operate in Al-Khiyam (educational institutions and a center of the Ministry of Welfare).

Overview of Al-Khiyam (Al-Khiyam municipality website)
Overview of Al-Khiyam (Al-Khiyam municipality website)
Security background
  • The increase in activity of Palestinian terrorists from Lebanon, coupled with the severe pressure exerted on the residents of the Christian villages near Israel by the coalition of Palestinians and the left during the Lebanese civil war, formed the background of the Good Fence policy adopted by Israel in 1976. Under this policy, Israel assisted residents near the border, providing them with weapons, basic food, medical services, and training. The enclaves of the Christian militias operating near the border and supported by Israel were headed by Major Saad Haddad, a Lebanese army officer sent to southern Lebanon by the Lebanese president.
  • Following Operation Litani (March 1978), territorial continuity was achieved between the Christian enclaves, which had been isolated from each other until that time. Shiite towns and villages were added to the Christian enclaves, including the towns of Al-Khiyam and Bint Jbeil. In the wake of the First Lebanon War and the IDF withdrawal (1985), the militias operating near the border were reorganized. These militias, called the South Lebanon Army (SLA), operated under the command of General Antoine Lahad until the IDF withdrew from Lebanon (May 20, 2000).
  • The town of Al-Khiyam was part of the Security Zone until the IDF withdrawal. The SLA’s main interrogation and detention facility was located in the town. After the withdrawal of the IDF and the collapse of the SLA, Hezbollah took control of Al-Khiyam and is now the main power in the town. This is reflected in the fact that 26 shaheeds from the town were killed in the ranks of Hezbollah, nine of them in the Syrian civil war (Al-Khiyam municipality website; Facebook page of the jihad fighter, the shaheed Hajj Imad Hassan Hamid – Abu Hassan, December 13, 2015; Al-Khiyam local news website, November 12, 2018). Hezbollah turned the Al-Khiyam interrogation and detention facility into a jihadi tourism site that plays an important role in its battle legacy (see details below).[1]
Hezbollah’s civilian institutions and those of other organizations operating in Al-Khiyam
Healthcare services in Al-Khiyam
  • The most prominent hospital in Al-Khiyam and its vicinity is Al-Khiyam Medical Center, which belongs to Hezbollah’s Islamic Health Organization[2]. This is a clinic that offers services in the following areas: dentistry, endocrinology, pediatrics, dermatology, thoracic surgery, general surgery, gastroenterology, family medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, cardiovascular medicine, gynecology, urology, ENT, the respiratory system, and public health, along with vaccinations, basic medications and various types of lab tests and imaging tests (Islamic Health Organization website, March 24, 2016) It appears that in addition to the Islamic Health Organization, the Al-Khiyam municipality and the Lebanese Ministry of Health are also partners in the operation of the Al-Khiyam center (Lebanese Ministry of Health website).
  •  Another hospital, whose political affiliation is unclear, is the Amel Medical Center, which belongs to a body called the National Authority for Popular Activity (known as the Amel Association)[3]. The center offers medical services in the following areas: pediatrics, gynecology, cardiovascular medicine, neurology, dentistry, orthopedics, ophthalmology, public health, physiotherapy, and various types of lab tests and imaging tests (Facebook page of the Amel Medical Center in Al-Khiyam, November 23-25, 2020). It provides far fewer services than the Al-Khiyam Medical Center.
The Amel Medical Center in Al-Khiyam (Facebook page of the Amel Medical Center in Al-Khiyam, December 7, 2018)  The Islamic Health Organization’s Al-Khiyam Medical Center (Islamic Health Organization website, September 15, 2016)
Right: The Islamic Health Organization’s Al-Khiyam Medical Center (Islamic Health Organization website, September 15, 2016) Left: The Amel Medical Center in Al-Khiyam (Facebook page of the Amel Medical Center in Al-Khiyam, December 7, 2018)
  • Four pharmacies operate in the town of Al-Khiyam: Alaa, Al-Hussam, Al-Sheikh, and Aboud (Google Maps). It is unknown whether these pharmacies belong to Hezbollah or any other political entity.
The education system in Al-Khiyam
Overview

A school called Issa Bin Mariam is the largest educational institution in Al-Khiyam. This institution belongs to the Al-Mabarrat al-Khayriya Association, which operates within the network of the educational, healthcare and charitable institutions of Sayyid Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, which is currently run by his son Ali[4]. The association has a presence in Shiite areas and, in the ITIC’s assessment, operates under the auspices of Hezbollah. In addition, there are state schools in Al-Khiyam that belong to the Lebanese Ministry of Education. Hezbollah does not have schools of its own in Al-Khiyam but its youth indoctrination institutions are active in and outside the town’s educational institutions (the Education Mobilization and two troops of the Imam al-Mahdi Scouts Movement).

  • According to the records of the Lebanese Ministry of Education, the town has four educational institutions: two state institutions and two private ones. Following is data about the town’s educational institutions (School Guide for the 2017-2018 school year on the website of the Educational Center for Research and Development of the Lebanese Ministry of Education):

According to the records of the Lebanese Ministry of Education, the town has four educational institutions

Issa Bin Mariam School
  • The most prominent private school in Al-Khiyam is Issa Bin Miriam, which belongs to the Al-Mabarrat al-Khayriya Association. The school opened in 2002. In the first school year of its operation, the student body numbered 183, while in the 2016-2017 school year, the student body numbered 1,324. The school provides education to students of all ages, from preschool to high school graduation. It also has students with learning difficulties and children of Lebanese expatriates.
  • An examination of the data from the Lebanese Ministry of Education shows that the Issa Bin Mariam School is the largest educational institution in Al-Khiyam (1,379 students in total). The school is larger than all other educational institutions combined. On the other hand, in terms of the number of students per class and the number of students per faculty member, the school is in last place (which may indicate a relatively low level of education). Studies at the Issa Bin Mariam Elementary School are offered free of charge. With regard to the middle school and the high school – the school has set up a tuition aid fund (website of the Al-Mabarrat al-Khayriya Association).
 High school diploma of the shaheed Hassan Muhammad Sharifa , who attended the Issa Bin Mariam School (Facebook page of the shaheed Hassan Muhammad Sharifa – Mujtaba).  The Issa Bin Miriam School in Al-Khiyam (website of the Al-Mabarrat al-Khayriya Association).
The Issa Bin Miriam School in Al-Khiyam (website of the Al-Mabarrat al-Khayriya Association). Left: High school diploma of the shaheed Hassan Muhammad Sharifa[5], who attended the Issa Bin Mariam School (Facebook page of the shaheed Hassan Muhammad Sharifa – Mujtaba).
  • The curriculum at the school is the official curriculum of the Lebanese Ministry of Education, and studies take place in Arabic, English and French. The school has also been granted an International School Award (ISA) from the British Council for Culture and, accordingly, is recognized worldwide. The school comprises three buildings with a total area of more than 2,500 square meters. In addition to the classrooms and offices of the administration, it has open and covered sports fields, a computer lab, a science lab, a technology lab, an art studio, a library and more.
Additional educational institutions
  •   In addition to these educational institutions, there are two vocational schools in Al-Khiyam: the Al-Khiyam Vocational School, also known as the Al-Khiyam Shaheeds Vocational Institute, and an agricultural school. The Al-Khiyam Vocational School offers diploma studies in accounting, electricity, nursing, hotel management, education, etc. (Al-Khiyam Vocational School website). The school belongs to the Lebanese Ministry of Education, but on its gate there is also a sign of the educational institutions of the Amal movement (which may indicate that it is affiliated with Amal in one way or another). The agricultural school belongs to the Lebanese Ministry of Agriculture. It is intended for students aged 15-20 and its graduates receive an agricultural expert diploma (Al-Khiyam municipality website; Al-Khiyam local news website, August 29, 2019).
  • Another school operating in the town is the Al-Madaen School (Al-Khiyam municipality website). It is not clear who owns this school, but the Islamic Religious Education Association (which runs Hezbollah’s Al-Mustafa Schools network[6]) operates there (Facebook page of the Islamic Religious Education Association, February 10, 2020).
Hezbollah’s activity among adolescents
Education Mobilization
  • The Education Mobilization is a Hezbollah institution engaged in indoctrinating Shiite students in the Lebanese state and private education systems in preparation for their joining Hezbollah upon graduation[7]. The Education Mobilization is very active in Al-Khiyam’s educational institutions. It holds activities such as appreciation ceremonies for outstanding students; celebration of Islamic holidays; workshops for students with test anxiety and also for teachers who have recently been required to teach remotely (Education Mobilization website, undated; Facebook page of the Al-Khiyam municipality, October 14, 2021).
School students in Al-Khiyam distributing candies to drivers on the Al-Khiyam Prison road on the anniversary of the birth of the Prophet Muhammad in an event organized by the Education Mobilization (Education Mobilization, undated)    Ceremonies honoring outstanding students, organized by the Education Mobilization and Al-Khiyam municipality (Education Mobilization website, undated).
Right: Ceremonies honoring outstanding students, organized by the Education Mobilization and Al-Khiyam municipality (Education Mobilization website, undated). Left: School students in Al-Khiyam distributing candies to drivers on the Al-Khiyam Prison road on the anniversary of the birth of the Prophet Muhammad in an event organized by the Education Mobilization (Education Mobilization, undated)
The Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts
  • The purpose of the Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts Movement is to nurture and inculcate youth with Shiite radical Islamic ideology according to the Iranian concept of the Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist[8]. Hezbollah operates two troops of its scout movement (one for boys and the other for girls) in Al-Khiyam. The ITIC does not know of any activity of Amal’s youth movement (Al-Resalah al-Islamiya Scouts) in the town.
Other civilian institutions of Hezbollah in Al-Khiyam
Overview

The social institutions established by Hezbollah have significant presence in Al-Khiyam and its environs. These institutions provide the local population with a large variety of services, far beyond the services extended by the state institutions of Lebanon operating there. Details follow.

Women’s Organizations
  • The Women’s Organizations Unit is the main institution in Hezbollah devoted to the women’s sector. Its purpose is to inculcate Shiite Islam and the Iranian worldview in women and, though them, strengthen support for Hezbollah and its hegemony in Shiite society.[9] The unit is active in Al-Khiyam. Among the events that the unit organizes are Ashura ceremonies and activities marking the anniversary of the IDF’s withdrawal from Lebanon (Saraj al-Ruh Facebook page; Ya Sour, June 2, 2015). The ITIC does not have information on the activity of Amal’s Women’s Affairs Office in Al-Khiyam.
Ceremony held by the Women’s Organizations in the Al-Khiyam Prison in 2015 to mark the anniversary of the IDF’s withdrawal from Lebanon (Ya Sour, June 2, 2015)     Ceremony held by the Women’s Organizations in the Al-Khiyam Prison in 2015 to mark the anniversary of the IDF’s withdrawal from Lebanon (Ya Sour, June 2, 2015)
Ceremony held by the Women’s Organizations in the Al-Khiyam Prison in 2015 to mark the anniversary of the IDF’s withdrawal from Lebanon (Ya Sour, June 2, 2015)
Jihad al-Bina
  • Hezbollah’s Jihad al-Bina Association is a branch of the Iranian Jihad al-Bina organization. It is engaged in reconstruction of buildings both in the wake of current military events and following large-scale confrontations. In routine daily life, Jihad al-Bina maintains varied activities among the Shiite community in Lebanon in agriculture, industry, education, health and welfare[10]. The association operates in close collaboration with the Al-Khiyam municipality and is active in the town in vocational training and agriculture (for example, providing courses on processing agricultural produce into various kinds of food; a forestation campaign near the border with Israel).
Sports Mobilization
  • Hezbollah’s Sports Mobilization establishes sports teams and initiates sports events on behalf of Hezbollah among the Shiite population in Lebanon. Hezbollah perceives sports as a means of inculcating youth with its values and attracting it to its ranks, based on the connection between sports and the jihadi-military sphere[11].
  •  The Sports Mobilization holds extensive activity in Al-Khiyam, organizing swimming, soccer and martial arts completions and other activities (Al-Khiyam local news page on Facebook, July 28 and August 20, 2015; Al-Khiyam municipality Facebook page, September 5 and December 29, 2015; Ali Yassin’s Facebook page, September 8, 2018).
Municipal activity
  • The mayor of Al-Khiyam is engineer Adnan Hassan Alyan, affiliated with the Amal movement (Al-Khiyam municipality website; Al-Nashra News Agency, February 8, 2020). On January 2020, Alyan replaced Mayor Ali Nassarat Abdallah, who died while in office (Al-Khiyam local news website, January 23, 2020).
Al-Khiyam Mayor Adnan Hassan Alyan (Al-Khiyam municipality website)
Al-Khiyam Mayor Adnan Hassan Alyan (Al-Khiyam municipality website)
  • The Al-Khiyam municipality works in close collaboration with Hezbollah’s municipal activity[12]. Thus, for example, in July 2019, a delegation of the Iranian Mashhad municipality, accompanied by Hezbollah’s representative in Al-Khiyam and with the participation of boys of Hezbollah’s Imam Al-Mahdi Scouts Movement visited the Al-Khiyam Prison (Sada Wadi al-Tim website, January 12, 2019; the Lebanese News Agency, July 8, 2019). The Al-Khiyam municipality is a client of Hezbollah’s Arch Consulting, which has been sanctioned by the United States[13]. The company dug a well for the municipality, 515 meter deep, with a budget of $165,000 (Arch Consulting website).
Gas station belonging to Hezbollah’s chain of gas stations
  • There are at least four gas stations in Al-Khiyam (Google Maps service). One of them, the Al-Amana station, belongs to Hezbollah’s Al-Amana chain of gas stations (Al-Amana gas station website). The chain is owned by Atlas Holding, which belongs to Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation[14].
Welfare services
  • A center of the Al-Imdad Association, which is a branch of the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee[15], an Iranian aid organization supporting the elders, operates in the town of Al-Khiyam. The center was established by the Al-Khiyam municipality with contribution funds. In 2016, it was adopted by the Al-Imdad Association and its name was changed to Imam Zayn al-Abedin House for the Service of the Elders. The center provides free medical tests, guidance on health issues, and leisure activity and trips, along with commemoration of Shiite events and holidays (Al-Imdad Association website).
Culture
  • One of the types of civilian activity to which Hezbollah attaches importance is art and culture. Hezbollah’s activity in this field includes, among other things, lectures for Hezbollah supporters by clerics, MPs, academics and military operatives; organizing painting exhibitions and jihadi exhibitions (in which Hezbollah displays its weapons and belongings of shaheeds); producing films, plays and performances (including extensive imports of Iranian productions); and a publishing house on Shiite Islam, support of Hezbollah and its values, and the Islamic Revolution in Iran[16].
  • It appears that since 2012, a branch of Imam Khomeini Cultural Centers, which belongs to the Hezbollah-affiliated Al-Maaref Islamic Cultural Association, has been active in Al-Khiyam (website of the Imam Khomeini Cultural Centers). The ITIC does not have information on the nature and scope of its activity in Al-Khiyam.
Jihadi tourism at the detention facility
  • As part of the “resistance society,” Hezbollah operates jihadi tourism, which includes visiting battle legacy sites and exhibitions, jihadi meetings with military operatives, and visiting shaheed tombs. Jihadi tourism nurtured by Hezbollah is different in nature from the common meaning of tourism worldwide. While tourism is usually intended for recreation, rest and excursions, in Hezbollah’s perception, it serves as a tool for the indoctrination of the operatives, the Shiite population and various institutions in Lebanon (including the Lebanese army). In addition, jihadi tourism serves as a means for spreading Hezbollah’s ideology in Lebanon and outside the country, as well as a tool to preserve the belligerent spirit in the struggle against Israel.
  • The interrogation and detention facility in Al-Khiyam, which was run by the South Lebanon Army when the IDF was deployed in the Security Zone, is currently used by Hezbollah as an important jihadi tourism site. As part of Hezbollah’s battle legacy, the site represents the period of the IDF’s deployment in the Security Zone. The facility is visited by Lebanese and Iranian delegations (Al-Khiyam website, August 2, 2017; Al-Manar TV, July 8, 2019). The Al-Khiyam detention facility is also used by Hezbollah to hold events of a political nature such as, for example, a demonstration of solidarity with hunger-striking Palestinian prisoners (Al-Manar TV, May 6, 2017); or protest against the Trump declaration on the recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel (Wadi press, December 24, 2017).
 Keys of the detention facility displayed at the site (Al-Akhbar, May 28, 2015)    Entrance gate to the Al-Khiyam Detention Facility.
Right: Entrance gate to the Al-Khiyam Detention Facility. Left: Keys of the detention facility displayed at the site (Al-Akhbar, May 28, 2015)
Part of the exhibition of seized weapons and vehicles at the site (Facebook)    Monument in memory of the shaheeds who died at the Al-Khiyam Detention Facility.
Right: Monument in memory of the shaheeds who died at the Al-Khiyam Detention Facility. Left: Part of the exhibition of seized weapons and vehicles at the site (Facebook)

[1] See the ITIC’s Information Bulletin from November 2019, “Jihadi tourism: visits to battle legacy sites and shahid tombs as an indoctrination tool for spreading Hezbollah’s ideology
[2] For further details, see the ITIC’s Information Bulletin from August 2019, “The Islamic Health Organization: Hezbollah institution providing health services to Hezbollah operatives and the Shiite population in general as a means for gaining influence and creating a Shiite mini-state within Lebanon

[3] The association was established in 1978 following Operation Litani and provides subsidized medical services (Amal Association website; Lebanese Ministry of Health website; Al-Khiyam local news website, September 30, 2011).

[4] Sayyid Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah was a senior Shiite cleric who studied in Najaf, Iraq, returned to Lebanon and played an important role in shaping the radical Shiite movement in Lebanon. He established a network of educational, charitable and healthcare institutions which operated among the Shiite population. This network is currently managed by his son, Ali Fadlallah, in the ITIC’s assessment under the auspices of Hezbollah, and also has a presence in Al-Khiyam.

[5] A Hezbollah operative from the southern Lebanese village of Al-Qantara killed in August 2017 in an ISIS car bombing at a Hezbollah position in Area T3 in the Syrian Desert.

[6] For more information, see the ITIC’s document from July 2019: “Hezbollah operates networks of private schools indoctrinating Shiite youth in Lebanon with the ideology of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and with loyalty to Hezbollah and the path of terrorism”

[7] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from July 2019, “Hezbollah’s Education Mobilization: An institution engaged in the indoctrination of Shiite students in Lebanon’s state and private educational systems, in preparation for their joining Hezbollah upon graduation

[8] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from July 2019, “The Imam al-Mahdi Scouts Association: Hezbollah’s youth movement which indoctrinates youth with Iranian radical Shiite Islam and serves as a source of youngsters who join Hezbollah

[9] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from August 2020, “Hezbollah’s Women’s Organizations Unit

[10] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from June 2019, “Jihad al-Bina Association in Lebanon: A Hezbollah social foundation engaged in construction and social projects among the Shiite community, being a major component in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure

[11] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from July 2019, “Sports in the service of terrorism: Hezbollah’s Sports Mobilization conducts extensive sports activity, using it for indoctrinating and preparing youth to join the ranks of Hezbollah

[12] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from October 2019, “Resistance society: Hezbollah’s municipal activity

[13] Arch Consulting is owned and controlled by Hezbollah. On September 17, 2020, it was sanctioned by the US Department of the Treasury. For more information, see the ITIC’s Information Bulletin from October 2020, “United States sanctions two of Hezbollah’s construction companies. Both are related to Jihad al-Bina, a major association in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure”

[14] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from April 2019, “Hezbollah’s Martyrs Foundation: purpose, mode of operation and funding methods” and the ITIC's Information Bulletin from May 2020, “Funding terrorism: US sanctions imposed on an extensive network of Hezbollah companies supporting its military-terrorist activity

[15] The Imam Khomeini Relief Committee is an Iranian aid organization. Its first branch in Lebanon was opened in Beirut in 1983, on the order of Imam Khomeini. It later expanded its activity and opened branches in the south and in the Bekaa Valley. The association provides assistance to vulnerable populations through the provision of monthly allowances, food distribution, financing medical treatments, etc. (Shimon Shapira, “Hezbollah between Iran and Lebanon” (Hebrew) – Tel Aviv University and Hakibbutz Hameuchad, fourth edition (2006), p. 146).

[16] For more details, see the ITIC's Information Bulletin from August 2019, “Art and culture used by Hezbollah as instruments of indoctrination