Spotlight on Terrorism: Hezbollah, Lebanon and Syria (June 16-29, 2023)

The tents erected by Hezbollah and to the left a Hezbollah terrorist operative wearing a Green Without Borders vest (Kan TV News, Israel, June 24, 2023).

The tents erected by Hezbollah and to the left a Hezbollah terrorist operative wearing a Green Without Borders vest (Kan TV News, Israel, June 24, 2023).

The goat. (Janubiyat, June 19, 2023).

The goat. (Janubiyat, June 19, 2023).

The UAV intercepted by Hezbollah (al-Mayadeen TV Twitter account, June 26, 2023).

The UAV intercepted by Hezbollah (al-Mayadeen TV Twitter account, June 26, 2023).

The Russian delegation meets with Hezbollah figures in Lebanon (al-'Ahed, June 24, 2023).

The Russian delegation meets with Hezbollah figures in Lebanon (al-'Ahed, June 24, 2023).

Hanaa Mahamid covers the Druze demonstration for al-Mayadeen TV (al-Mayadeen, June 21, 2023).

Hanaa Mahamid covers the Druze demonstration for al-Mayadeen TV (al-Mayadeen, June 21, 2023).

Druze rally in Lebanon near the Israeli border (@alishoeib1970 Twitter account, June 21, 2023).

Druze rally in Lebanon near the Israeli border (@alishoeib1970 Twitter account, June 21, 2023).

Mikati (right) meets with Romain de La Martinière (Lebanon24, June 19, 2023).

Mikati (right) meets with Romain de La Martinière (Lebanon24, June 19, 2023).

Overview
  • Growing tension on the Israel-Lebanon border: Hezbollah refuses to remove the two-tent post it erected on the Israeli side of the Blue Line (the Israel-Lebanon border). Israel warned south Lebanese residents to keep their distance from the border. Hezbollah intercepted an IDF UAV in south Lebanon.
  • According to reports, Hezbollah uses Beirut airport’s radar system.
  • According to reports, relations between Hezbollah and Hamas in Lebanon’s refugee camps are growing stronger.
  • Rallies were held in Syria and Lebanon in solidarity with the Druze protest in the Golan Heights. The protest is accompanied by propaganda against the “occupation of the Golan” and support for Palestinian terrorism.
  • According to a Washington Institute report on Lebanon’s financial crisis, Hezbollah profits by exploiting the situation to expand its control over the Lebanese infrastructure, from its banks to its fuel and electricity.
  • Hezbollah-Lebanon hosted a delegation of Russian Muslims and Christians.
  • The political crisis revolving around attempts to find a president for Lebanon continues, with Lebanese sources criticizing Hezbollah.
  • A squad of five Hezbollah operatives was detained in the Idlib district by the Tahrir al-Sham Army.
  • Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Galant, speaking at a conference about cryptocurrency organized by the Israeli National Bureau for Counter Terror Financing, reported that the Israeli security forces had exposed a Hezbollah-Qods Force money-transferring network which used digital currencies; Israel confiscated millions of dollars before the money could be transferred to the Iranian-funded terrorist organizations.
  • The United States released a key Hezbollah financial figure from an American prison.
  • An Argentinean judge called on INTERPOL to issue an international warrant for the arrest of four Lebanese suspected of involvement in the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association (AMIA, the Jewish community center) explosion in Buenos Aires, carried out by Hezbollah and orchestrated by Iran, on July 18, 1994.
Hezbollah
Hezbollah refuses to evacuate a military-terrorist position erected in Israeli territory
  • Tensions along the Israel-Lebanon border grew during the past month after Hezbollah erected a military-terrorist post consisting of a tent and a tent-covered generator on the Israeli side of the Blue Line, which demarcates the border. UNIFIL confirmed the post was in Israeli territory (allinsrael.com, June 25, 2023). The act was a clear violation of the UN resolution designating the area as a demilitarized zone.
  •  Gilad Erdan, the Israeli ambassador to the UN, showed the members of the Security Council aerial photographs of the site depicting two tents and an armed Hezbollah operative wearing a Green Without Borders vest; the “environmental organization” is a cover for Hezbollah activity. Erdan said UNIFIL had to implement its mandate and keep the site from being exploited for hostile activities and attacks on Israel. He called on the Security Council to condemn Hezbollah and its sponsor, Iran, and to demand the Lebanese authorities act immediately to remove the position (Ynet, June 23, 2023).
The tents erected by Hezbollah and to the left a Hezbollah terrorist operative wearing a Green Without Borders vest (Kan TV News, Israel, June 24, 2023).
The tents erected by Hezbollah and to the left a Hezbollah terrorist operative wearing a Green Without Borders vest (Kan TV News, Israel, June 24, 2023).
  • According to the Hezbollah-affiliated Lebanese newspaper al-Akhbar, the position was situated on “occupied Lebanese territory,” and therefore official and/or civilian Lebanese institutions had the “right” to be there or to farm the land or tend to livestock. Hezbollah absolutely refused to remove the position and reinforced it, which led Israel to look for other ways to force the organization to leave.[1] According to the newspaper, despite Israeli threats of force, Israel is in the wrong because it is not “familiar” with the Shebaa Farms region [Har Dov], which is “occupied Lebanese territory,” over which Israel does not have sovereignty. In addition, the Blue Line is a “line of withdrawal for the occupation army” and does not demarcate the border between Israel and Lebanon, and Lebanon has 13 reservations regarding it (al-Akhbar, June 22, 2023). Hezbollah remained silent and did not issue a formal response.
  • According to the Lebanese daily newspaper al-Medan, the next step may be the erection of more Hezbollah tents or other “popular protests” in the area. Quoting “sources monitoring the issue,” whenever Israel sends messages to remove the tents, Hezbollah answers, mostly through the UN, stating that an attempt will lead to a confrontation (al-Medan, June 22, 2023).
  • The Lebanese news website al-Nashra reported that Hezbollah would be happy to see the retraction of the UN resolution article allowing UNIFIL freedom of activity in the area. However, Hezbollah does not consider it significant because last year the organization decided to focus on activity on the ground and not on written agreements (al-Nashra, June 27, 2023).
  • Ali Shoeib, a correspondent for Hezbollah’s al-Manar, dismissed Israel’s threats, claiming 21 days had passed since Israel’s June 1, 2023, threat of a forceful removal of the tents, but so far Israel had not dared to do it (@alishoeib1970 Twitter account, June 21, 2023).

Israel calls on south Lebanon residents to keep their distance from the Blue Line

  • According to reports, on June 19, 2023, a shepherd in south Lebanon’s al-Shahal area was surprised to see a goat with a plastic bottle attached to its horns. Inside were three rolled sheets of paper with a warning from Israel to south Lebanese shepherds to keep their distance from the Israeli border. The notes read, “You have been warned, do not approach the Israeli border. Whoever comes close will regret it” (Janubiyat, June 19, 2023).
 The notes (Janubiyat, June 19, 2023).    The goat. (Janubiyat, June 19, 2023).
Right: The goat. Left: The notes (Janubiyat, June 19, 2023).
IDF UAV falls in south Lebanon
  • An IED UAV fell inside Lebanese territory during a routine operational activity. The IDF spokesman reported there was no concern that information would be leaked (IDF spokesman, June 26, 2023). Hezbollah intercepted the UAV in Wadi el-Aaziyeh, in Lebanese territory, about five kilometers (three miles) north of the Israel-Lebanon border. Hezbollah claimed the UAV had entered Lebanese airspace from the direction of Zarit (a moshav about 300 meters, or a fifth of a mile, from the border). It gained a medium altitude and Hezbollah used “appropriate means” to control it when it was approximately seven kilometers (a little over four miles) inside Lebanese territory. Hezbollah claimed IDF forces tried unsuccessfully to retrieve the UAV and later to minimize the importance of the event. However, Hezbollah claimed it had in effect managed to limit the freedom of movement of Israeli aircraft in the skies over Lebanon (al-Manar and al-Mayadeen, June 26, 2023).
The UAV intercepted by Hezbollah (al-Mayadeen TV Twitter account, June 26, 2023).
The UAV intercepted by Hezbollah (al-Mayadeen TV Twitter account, June 26, 2023).
  • Note: During the exercises held by Hezbollah terrorist operatives in south Lebanon on May 21, 2023, an operative was shown holding an electronic device for intercepting UAVs (Telegram, May 21, 2023).[2]
Hezbollah operative holds a UAV interception device (Telegram, May 21, 2023).
Hezbollah operative holds a UAV interception device (Telegram, May 21, 2023).
Hezbollah hacked the radar system of the Beirut airport
  • Al-Araby TV reported that according to “Western sources,” Hezbollah hacked the Lebanese army intelligence network in Beirut’s airport and was using its radar system. It was also reported that Hezbollah recruited Lebanese army soldiers to carry out missions without the army’s knowledge. A soldier named Hamza Msheik enabled Hezbollah to enter the system and helped recruit other soldiers. That gave Hezbollah access to Lebanese army intelligence equipment which had been provided by the United States and other Western countries. Hezbollah tried to fend off the accusations, claiming the Saudi Arabian news outlets and their “Lebanese proxies” had begun a campaign of lies that served only “the Zionist enemy” [Israel] and was intended to damage tourism to Lebanon (al-Arabiya, June 26, 2023; al-Hadath, June 23, 2023).
  • Germany, France and other Western countries routinely supply the Lebanese army with equipment and training. Since Hezbollah has been hacking into all of Lebanon’s government apparatuses for years, weakening the government and damaging its governance, all the countries providing Lebanon with military assistance should be aware that their assistance is liable to fall into Hezbollah’s hands, and from there to Iran and its strategic partners.
Hezbollah profits from the Lebanon’s economic crisis and expands its intervention in the country’s economy
  • The Washington Institute issued a report on Lebanon’s economy, stating that the situation was about as bad as it could be and Hezbollah was making capital out of it. According to the report, Hezbollah exploited the crisis to expand its banking systems, its money-changing network, its involvement in the sale of fuel and provision of electricity by purchasing Lebanese real estate and businesses. In addition, Hezbollah managed to enter the fields of solar energy and pharmaceuticals, including the trade of the synthetic drug Captagon, a highly addictive amphetamine-type stimulant.
Hezbollah criticized following failed efforts to find a Lebanese president
  • In the wake of the Lebanese Parliament’s failure to reach an agreement regarding the election of a president, the friction between Hezbollah and the national-liberal Lebanese parties has worsened. The camp of presidential candidate Jihad Azour accused Hezbollah and its partners of sabotaging the democratic process (naharnet.com, June 15, 2023). Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi said he was disappointed no president had yet been elected and that the situation exacerbated the schism in Lebanese society, hinting Hezbollah and Amal had deliberately sabotaged the efforts to find a candidate (Reuters, June 18, 2023).
  • Following the criticism and in an attempt to improve its image inside Lebanon, Hezbollah initiated a campaign in the social networks. It asked its supporters to spread the claim that the votes of its camp were ideologically united while the votes for Azour were “a temporary patchwork” whose only objective was to act against Hezbollah (Telegram, June 15-17, 2023).
Na’im Qassem remarks on the United States
  • Interviewed by the Iranian TV channel al-Alam, Na’im Qassem, deputy Hezbollah secretary general, said Saudi Arabia had renewed diplomatic relations with Iran because it understood the United States would no longer defend it. He said Israel was also affected because it thought it could normalize relations with Saudi Arabia and other Arab states without giving anything to the Palestinians. He claimed the United States was not pleased with the Saudi Arabian-Iranian agreement and knew the continuing crisis in Yemen would disrupt plans for its 2030 Saudi Arabian vision, and the ongoing crisis in Syria would undermine Saudi Arabia’s overall political situation. He added that the United States was weak, and because it was seriously at odds with Israel, it had nothing to offer regarding the Israeli front. Moreover, the United States was busy with Ukraine and other international affairs, and therefore unlikely to change its attitude towards reconciliation with Iran, which was spreading throughout the Middle East, but it would try to raise obstacles (MEMRI, June 20 2023).
Hezbollah hosted a Russian delegation in Lebanon
  • Muhammad Yazbek, head of the Sharia Council and a member of Hezbollah’s Shura Council, hosted a Muslim delegation from Russia headed by Sheikh Albert Karganov, Grand Mufti and president of the Religious Association of Russian Muslims, and Alexei Cherkozov, the President of the Russian Christian World Union. The delegation visited the Beqa’a area (a Hezbollah stronghold), the grave of former Hezbollah secretary general Abbas Masawi and other sites, and attended lectures on the situation and the need for interfaith understanding in Lebanon (al-‘Ahed, June 24, 2023).
The Russian delegation meets with Hezbollah figures in Lebanon (al-'Ahed, June 24, 2023).
The Russian delegation meets with Hezbollah figures in Lebanon (al-‘Ahed, June 24, 2023).
Strengthening Hamas-Hezbollah ties in the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon
  • According to various reports, in the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon, ties between Hamas and Hezbollah are strengthening, enabling Hamas terrorists to operate more freely in the refugee camps in return for greater Hamas subservience to Iran and Hezbollah. The alliance also gives Hamas a strategic depth and influence in the camps. About 479,000 Palestinian refugees live in 12 camps, overseen by UNRWA. They are second-class citizens and limited by Lebanese law, which prevents them from joining many professions or owning land (Jewish Press, June 26, 2023). In recent years the camps have been breeding grounds for radical Sunni Islamism, and the objective of a Hamas presence in the camps may be to control such elements and subordinate them to Hamas.
Internal Lebanese Affairs
Reactions to the Druze demonstrations against the installation of wind turbines in the Gaza Strip
  • On June 21, 2023, several thousand Druze from the Golan Heights demonstrated against the construction of a wind-turbine farm. Rioters burned tires, threw rocks and Molotov cocktails, and shot fireworks at the Israeli police forces deployed at the construction site. Four demonstrators were wounded, one of them seriously. During the riots several Druze tried to break into the police station in Mas’adeh, using live fire, throwing rocks, and shooting fireworks. They were repelled by the police, 12 of whom were injured by rocks (Ynet, June 21, 2023).
  • The Hezbollah-affiliated al-Mayadeen TV network’s Arab-Israeli correspondent Hanaa Mahamid covered the demonstrations live. Wearing a helmet and bullet-proof vest, she reported from what she referred to as “the occupied Golan.” She claimed it was a “non-violent” demonstration of hundreds, or perhaps thousands, against the “occupation”
Hanaa Mahamid covers the Druze demonstration for al-Mayadeen TV (al-Mayadeen, June 21, 2023).      Hanaa Mahamid covers the Druze demonstration for al-Mayadeen TV (al-Mayadeen, June 21, 2023).
Hanaa Mahamid covers the Druze demonstration for al-Mayadeen TV
(al-Mayadeen, June 21, 2023).
  • After the demonstration a solidarity rally was held near the Israel-Lebanon border, attended by dozens of Druze from the Golan Heights. The spokesman for the rally said they were prepared to do whatever was required to help (@alishoeib1970 Twitter account, June 21, 2023). The rally spread into Syrian territory, where Druze from the Dara’a and Suwayda districts came to support it, also claiming the Golan Heights was “occupied territory” (al-Manar, June 21, 2023).
Druze rally in Lebanon near the Israeli border (@alishoeib1970 Twitter account, June 21, 2023).
Druze rally in Lebanon near the Israeli border (@alishoeib1970 Twitter account, June 21, 2023).
  • Walid Jumblatt’s Progressive Socialist Party, which is supported by a Druze majority, issued a statement of solidarity which referred to the Druze residents of the Golan Heights as “sons of the occupied Arab Golan” and praised the protestors, stressing the importance of persevering along a national path. In a telephone conversation Jumblatt praised the protest and its connection to the activity of the Palestinians against Israel, calling it a show of Arab heroism like those in Jenin and Gaza. He called for greater Arab national solidarity with the Golan and the Palestinians to “struggle” against the “Jewish Zionist settlement project.” He also called for Arab unity, a peaceful “struggle” and even “an armed struggle [against Israel], like the one in Jenin.” In an interview Jumblatt said that ten days previously he had met with Israeli representatives in Cyprus, among them former Israeli Knesset member Sayid Nafa’,[3] from the Israeli Arab Balad Party, representatives of “the free Druze,” the movement Nafa founded, and Druze cultural figures. The main topic of discussion was the Druze refusal to serve in the IDF; he added that similar meetings might be held in the future (al-Mayadeen, June 21, 2023).
Preparations for offshore drilling in Block 9
  • On June 19, 2023, Lebanese Prime Minister Najib Mikati met with Romain de La Martinière, the CEO of TotalEnergies Lebanon. De La Martinière reviewed the preparations for importing the materials necessary for offshore drilling and related activities. He said the TransOcean Barents rig was expected to arrive off the Lebanese coast in August 2023 (Lebanon24, June 19, 2023).
Mikati (right) meets with Romain de La Martinière (Lebanon24, June 19, 2023).
Mikati (right) meets with Romain de La Martinière (Lebanon24, June 19, 2023).
Lebanon’s worsening economic conditions
  • The Lebanese economic crisis is worsening, recently affecting the supply of electricity. It was reported that the country’s inability to pay for fuel prevents the electric company from functioning properly, severely limiting the country’s power supply. Amjad al-Rawashdeh, chairman of the Jordanian electric company, said Jordan was prepared to help supply electricity to Lebanon until the financial problem had been solved (al-Nashra, June 28, 2023). According to another report, the Beirut municipality is on the brink of bankruptcy, with capital sufficient to pay salaries for no more than 18 months [sic] (al-Akhbar, June 28, 2023).
Israeli citizen held at Beirut airport
  • At the Beirut airport, agents of Lebanese General Intelligence held an Israeli citizen with an EU passport for questioning, detaining him for 48 hours. According to the report, the Israeli was en route to Iraq, and interrogation revealed he had no intention of remaining in Lebanon and was only in Beirut to catch a connecting flight to Iraq, where he had business to conduct. During interrogation he admitted he had Israeli citizenship and had lived in Israel in the past, served in the IDF and had connections with senior Israeli officials, and had carried out missions for the Israeli government. When it became clear that he did not intend to enter Lebanon and carried an EU passport , He was released (al-Akhbar, June 26, 2023).
Syrian citizen detained by the Lebanese army
  • The Lebanese army detained a Syrian in Beirut on suspicion of membership in an “armed organization” [a rebel organization] in Syria and fighting in its ranks. Interrogation revealed he had been recruited by Israeli intelligence to collect information; the interrogation continues (Lebanese army website, June 22, 2023).
Hezbollah Reactions to Events in Israel
Praise for the attack near the settlement of Eli
  • Na’im Qassem, deputy Hezbollah secretary general, said in an interview that Hezbollah would stand with the Palestinian people until the end of the “Zionist occupation.” He praised the Palestinian people for being what he called “a paragon of heroism” in the most recent “confrontations” in Jenin and north of Ramallah. Regarding the events in Jenin and the attack near the settlement of Eli, where two Palestinian terrorists from Urif shot and killed four Israeli civilians, two of them teenagers, he said it was the “legitimate right” of the Palestinian people, since every “Zionist” on Palestinian land was “an armed, aggressive fighter” (saba.ye, June 21, 2023).
  • Hezbollah issued an announcement condemning the IDF activity in Jenin, and praising the local residents and the attack near Eli. It praised the “heroic action” of the “resistance fighters” [terrorist operatives] in Jenin and the “jihad fighters” who surprised Israel. The attack near Eli was described as “an excellent action carried out by resistance heroes in the settlement of Eli” (Fars News, June 21, 2023). An announcer for the Hezbollah-affiliated al-Manar TV channel praised the two terrorists who carried out the attack and “put fear into the Zionists’ hearts” (al-Manar, June 20, 2023).
Hezbollah calls for international intervention
  • The activities carried out by the Jewish settlers against Palestinians to avenge the deaths of the four Israelis murdered in the settlement of Eli were called by Hezbollah “a crime sponsored by the government of the false entity,” and Hezbollah demanded international intervention. According to a statement read on Hezbollah-affiliated al-Nur radio, “the desecration of mosques, burning of the Holy Qur’an, invasions of houses and destruction of orchards” carried out under the protection of the government of Israel were serious crimes against all religious, human and moral values, showed contempt for all the Semitic religions and insulted the Arab-Muslim nations. Hezbollah called on the Arab-Muslim governments and international human rights organizations to do “everything” to condemn the actions and take measures to prevent them (Radio al-Nur, June 23, 2023).
Syria
Pilgrims’ buses used to transport arms and operatives
  • On June 20, 2023, three days of intensive pro-Iranian militia activity was reported. The operatives transported weapons, ammunition and logistic equipment in civilian buses used to carry pilgrims from Iraq through Albukamal to the Shi’ite shrine of al-Sayyidah Zaynab, south of Damascus. Civilian buses were used to avoid suspicion and attacks. It was also reported that Hezbollah and the pro-Iranian militias sent operatives and commanders from the Deir ez-Zor province to the Damascus region in three pilgrimage buses (Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, June 20, 2023).
Five Hezbollah-Lebanon squad operatives detained
  • On June 24, 2023, the security apparatus of the headquarters of the al-Qaeda-affiliated Tahrir al-Sham Army, the leading organization in the Sunni rebel enclave in Idlib, detained five operatives, four men and one woman, who belonged to Hezbollah-Lebanon. In recent months the security apparatus has detained several squads operating for Russia, Iran, Hezbollah, the Syrian army and its auxiliary forces; the previous detention was of a young girl and took place in the Clock Square in the center of Idlib (Baladi News, June 24, 2023).
The four male Hezbollah operatives detained in Syria (Baladi News, June 24, 2023).
The four male Hezbollah operatives detained in Syria (Baladi News, June 24, 2023).
The woman Hezbollah operative; face blurred in the original picture (Baladi News, June 24, 2023).
The woman Hezbollah operative; face blurred in the original picture
(Baladi News, June 24, 2023).
Financing Terrorism
Hezbollah-Qods Force money-transfer network exposed
  • On June 28, 2023, the Israeli defense ministry’s National Bureau for Counter Terror Financing held the Third Crypto Conference. Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Galant said Israeli security had closed a Hezbollah-Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Qods Force network which used digital currency to transfer funds for terrorist activities. The millions of dollars confiscated were transferred to Israel’s treasury; Gallant called it a precedent. He said combatting the transfer of terrorist funds had become more complex because of the use of digital currencies, and the IDF had newly-developed capabilities which had led to significant achievements. He also said that anyone who funded terrorism, or had a financial relation with terrorist operatives, should know he was a target like any other terrorist. He added that since the beginning of the year Hezbollah operatives, Qods Force operatives and other terrorists in Syria had used digital currencies to receive funding from third parties, mainly from money-changers, through illegal transactions used by the terrorist organizations to finance their everyday activities. He stressed that Iran was the paymaster, training terrorist operatives and spreading terrorism against Israel and other countries around the globe, and Israel would continue its activities to combat the terrorist organizations’ financial networks, operatives and those who transferred the funds (National Bureau for Counter Terror Financing website, June 28, 2023).
Hezbollah financier released from jail in the United States
  • Muhammad Yussuf Hamoud, a senior Hezbollah operative sentenced to 23 years in prison in the United States for helping fund Hezbollah, was released on June 13, 2023, after serving 20 years of his sentence, and arrived in Lebanon (al-Araby al-Jadeed, June 14, 2023).
Muhammad Yussuf Hamoud, after release from prison (al-Mayadeen, June 15, 2023).
Muhammad Yussuf Hamoud, after release from prison (al-Mayadeen, June 15, 2023).
Hezbollah Involvement in International Terrorism
INTERPOL called on to arrest Hezbollah operatives involved in the AMIA attack
  • Daniel Rafecas, a federal judge in Argentina, called on INTERPOL to issue international arrest warrants for four Lebanese assumed to be living in Paraguay, Brazil or Beirut, on suspicion of involvement in the bombing of the Jewish community center, the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association (AMIA) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994. Eighty-five people were killed in the attack and more than 300 were wounded. The four wanted terrorists are Hussein Mourni Mouzannar, Ali Hussein Abdallah, Farouk Abdul Hay Omairi and Abdallah Salman. They are suspected of being Hezbollah operatives or Iranian-sponsored agents who worked for Hezbollah. According to the court documents, Salman is suspected of coordinating the arrival and extraction of the squad which detonated the bomb.
  • Hezbollah is designated as a terrorist organization by the United States and Argentina. However, suspicions were raised that individuals in the Argentinean administration protected Iran and Hezbollah. That was made known with the mysterious death of Alberto Nisman, the prosecutor who was found dead in his apartment in 2015, hours before he was supposed to present evidence against Cristina Kirchner, who was the president of Argentina at the time and today is vice-president. In 2022 the accusations against her were retracted (Yahoo Life, June 15, 2023; The Time of Israel, June 16, 2023).

[1] Since it is a question of two tents, Hezbollah and the media sometimes referred to "tents" rather than "position."
[2] For further information see the May 22, 2023 report, "Hezbollah holds a military display in south Lebanon and threatens Israel."
[3] In 2014 Nafa' was convicted of having contacts with a foreign agent and traveling to an enemy country and sentenced to a year in prison.