Blowing up the houses of two Palestinian terrorists in the village of Kafr Dan (Wafa, January 2, 2023).
The double funeral held in Jenin; Fouad 'Abed wrapped for burial in a green Hamas flag (Shehab, January 2, 2023).
Palestinian shooting at Israeli security forces (New Press Twitter account, December 30, 2022).
Itamar Ben-Gvir on the Temple Mount (Shehab Twitter account, January 3, 2023).
Displacing the Israeli flag.
Riyad al-Maliki with Arab ambassadors in Brazil (PA foreign ministry website, January 1, 2023).
- This past week there were no terrorist attacks. However, Palestinians continued throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails at Israeli vehicles driving on the roads in Judea and Samaria. The Israeli security forces continued counterterrorism activities, detaining dozens of wanted terrorists and confiscating weapons. Three Palestinians, all terrorist organization operatives, were killed in clashes with Israeli security forces in Kafr Dan and the Dheisheh refugee camp.
- The new Israeli national security minister entered the Temple Mount compound on January 3, 2023, and the Palestinians responded with condemnations and threats. The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) threatened another intifada, stating their “finger was on the trigger.”
- The Gaza Strip remained relatively quiet. The terrorist wings of the various organizations held their third annual “military” exercise near the security fence in the northern Gaza Strip, organized by the joint operations room. They simulated a variety of scenarios, including infiltrating an IDF base and abducting soldiers.
- The UN General Assembly’s vote to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for an advisory opinion against Israel regarding the “legal implications of the ongoing Israeli occupation,” led to satisfaction in the Palestinian Authority (PA). Hamas welcomed the vote, but some people were less enthusiastic.
- The new Israeli government was sworn in, leading the Palestinians to condemn it and its declared policies, and warn the international community of its potentially dangerous nature.
- Fatah held mass rallies in Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip to celebrate the 58th anniversary of its founding. The main rally was held in Ramallah. Fatah and PA figures praised the Palestinian shaheeds and the guest of honor was the father of the terrorist operative who carried out the shooting attack in Tel Aviv on April 7, 2022.
- At the weekly government meeting, PA Prime Minister Muhammad Shtayyeh displayed data indicating growth in the Palestinian economy.
Significant Terrorist Attacks in Judea and Samaria since November 2020
Two Palestinians killed during the demolition of terrorists’ houses in Kafr Dan
- On the night of January 1, 2023, IDF forces demolished the houses of Abd al-Rahman ‘Abed and Ahmed Ayman ‘Abed in Kafr Dan (west of Jenin). During the operation local Palestinians rioted. They threw rocks, Molotov cocktails, burning tires and IEDs, and shot at the soldiers, who responded with riot control measures, including the use of live fire, shooting at the attacking Palestinians (IDF spokesman’s Twitter account, January 2 2023).
Right: Blowing up the houses of two Palestinian terrorists in the village of Kafr Dan (Wafa, January 2, 2023). Left: Palestinians throw rocks at an Israeli security force vehicle (Palestine Post Twitter account, January 2, 2023).
- The Palestinians reported the deaths of Muhammad Samer Hushiya, 21 years old, from the neighboring village of Yamoun, and Fouad Mahmoud Ahmed ‘Abed, 17 years old, from Kafr Dan. Six Palestinians were wounded, one of them seriously (Wafa, January 2, 2023). The al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades (AAMB), Fatah’s military-terrorist wing, issued a mourning notice for them, stating that Muhammed Samer Hushiya, 22 years old, and Fouad Ahmed ‘Abed, 25 years old, were operatives in its Fatah Kafr Dan network (AAMB Telegram channel, January 2, 2023). Hamas also issued a mourning notice for them, claiming Fouad Mahmoud Ahmed ‘Abed, 18 years old, was one of its operatives (Hamas website, January 2, 2023). His body was wrapped in a Hamas flag for burial (Shehab, January 2, 2023).
Right: AAMB mourning notice (AAMB Telegram channel, January 2, 2023). Left: Hamas mourning notice (Paldf Twitter account, January 2, 2023).
The double funeral held in Jenin; Fouad ‘Abed wrapped for burial in a green Hamas flag
(Shehab, January 2, 2023).
- This past week the Israeli security forces continued intensive counterterrorism activities in Judea and Samaria, detaining Palestinians suspected of involvement in terrorist activities and confiscating large quantities of weapons.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) terrorist operative killed in the Dheisheh refugee camp
- Before dawn on January 3, 2023, Israeli security forces operated in the Dheisheh refugee camp (southwest of Bethlehem) and detained a wanted Palestinian. During the detention local residents rioted, throwing rocks, Molotov cocktails and burning tires at the forces, who responded with live fire, hitting a young Palestinian identified as the leader of the clash (Ynet, January 3, 2023).
- The ministry of health in Ramallah reported the death of Adam Issam Shaker Iyad, 15 years old, from the Dheisheh refugee camp. The PFLP claimed him as one of its operatives. His body was wrapped in a PFLP flag for burial and his “last will and testament” was placed on it. He wrote that Allah had allowed him to realize one of his dreams, to die as a shaheed, and called on everyone to point their compasses at the “struggle” against the “occupation” (Bowabat al-Hadaf, January 3, 2023). Following his death a general strike was declared in the Bethlehem district (Wafa, January 3, 2023).
Right: The body of Adam Iyad, wrapped for burial in a PFLP flag, with his last will and testament (Facebook page of Amer Abu Amer, January 3, 2023). Left: The mourning notice issued for Adam Iyad by the PFLP (Facebook page of Imran Salah Muhammad Salah, January 3, 2023).
- On the morning of December 30, 2022, IDF forces operated in the Old City in Nablus to detain Ahmed al-Masri (aka Faraon al-Baladi), 19 years old, an operative in the Lion’s Den terrorist network who was an associate of Ibrahim al-Nabulsi (a Lion’s Den operative killed in an exchange of fire with Israeli security force on August 8, 2022). When the security forces reached the building he was in he fled, hiding in a building where there were several uninvolved people. The security forces broke in and detained him, confiscating his weapon and ammunition (IDF Twitter account, December 30, 2022).
Ahmed al-Masri. Right: Twitter account of Isma’il Mohammad, December 30, 2022. Left: Ahmed al-Masri with Lion’s Den commander Wadia al-Huh, who was killed on December 25, 2022 (Palestiner Twitter account, December 30, 2022).
- During the operation armed Palestinians directed massive gunfire at the Israeli forces and threw IEDs. The forces returned fire (IDF spokesman’s Twitter account, December 30, 2022). The Palestinian Red Crescent in Nablus reported that 35 Palestinians had been injured, 25 by inhaling tear gas (Wafa, December 30, 2022).
Right: The gun and ammunition found in the possession of Ahmed al-Masri (IDF spokesman’s Twitter account, December 30, 2022). Left: Palestinian shooting at Israeli security forces (New Press Twitter account, December 30, 2022).
- The Lion’s Den network said in a statement that its message for Israel was that the Lion’s Den was stronger than ever, after its operatives had clashed with the security forces for three hours and created a “belt of fire” around with IEDs, forcing the soldiers to retreat under fire. They had been successful, they claimed, even though Israel announced the network had been destroyed and Israel forces could enter the Old City in Nablus to carry out detentions without interference (Lion’s Den Telegram channel, December 30, 2023).
- On the morning of December 28, 2022, Israeli security forces detained a Palestinian suspected of terrorist activity in the Dheisheh refugee camp (southwest of Bethlehem). His vehicle was parked outside his house, and a search revealed two M-16 assault rifles, magazines and ammunition. The suspect was taken for interrogation (Israel Police Force Twitter account, December 28, 2022). The Palestinian media reported the detention of Ashraf Muhammad Hassan Zaghari, 29 years old, from the Dheisheh refugee camp. He was a PFLP terrorist operative and released prisoner (Handala Center website, December 28, 2022; Bowabat al-Hadaf, July 10, 2019).
Right: Ashraf Zaghari (@PalPrisoners Twitter account, December 28, 2022). Left: The weapons found in Ashraf Zaghari’s possession (Israel Police Force Twitter account, December 28, 2022).
Reactions to the entrance of the Israeli national security minister into the Temple Mount compound
- During the early morning hours of January 3, 2023, Itamar Ben-Gvir, the new national security minister, entered the Temple Mount compound to mark the beginning of the Tenth of Tevet fast. His entrance was coordinated with the Israeli security forces and he was heavily guarded (Israeli media, January 3, 2023).
Itamar Ben-Gvir on the Temple Mount (Shehab Twitter account, January 3, 2023).
- His entering (“storming,” according to the Palestinians) the Temple Mount was widely covered by the Palestinian media, which issued pictures and videos. The Palestinians in general reacted strongly. As soon as his proposed visit was made known it met with condemnation and threats, including claims calling it a “declaration of war,” and an act that could “detonate the situation” and lead to another intifada (Radio Sawt al-Aqsa, January 2, 2023).
- Some of the reactions were the following:
- Nabil Abu Rudeineh, spokesman for Mahmoud Abbas, warned Israel not to continue its provocations which, he claimed, would cause additional tension and violence and “detonate the situation.”
- Hamas spokesman Hazem Qassem called Itamar Ben-Gvir’s “crime of storming” al-Aqsa mosque was a continuation of the “occupation’s” ongoing aggression against the holy sites and of its war against their Arab identity. He said al-Aqsa mosque was and would remain Palestinian, Arab and Islamic, and no force or person could change it (Shehab, January 3, 2023).
- PIJ spokesman Tareq Salami claimed the “extremist-Zionist minister’s storming” of al-Aqsa mosque was “aggression” against all Palestinians, Arabs and Muslims. He said the “resistance” [terrorist organizations] was fully deployed and aware, and carried out ongoing assessments of the situation with “its trigger finger ready. He claimed the “bullets of the fighters in Jenin and Nablus would no doubt reach Jerusalem” (PIJ website, January 3, 2023).
- Tareq Izz al-Din, PIJ spokesman for Judea and Samaria matters, said allowing Itamar Ben-Gvir to “storm” al-Aqsa mosque under IDF (“occupation”) guard gave the alert for a new uprising (Daffa_media Telegram channel [the Telegram channel of the PIJ in Judea and Samaria], January 3, 2023).
Rocket and mortar shell fire into Israel
- This past week no rocket or mortar shell hits were identified in Israeli territory.
Monthly Distribution of Rocket and Mortar Shell Fire since January 2020
Annual Distribution of Rocket Hits
Joint military exercise
- On December 28, 2022, the joint operations room of the Palestinian organizations held the “Firm Support 3” military exercise near the border security fence in the northern Gaza Strip. The joint operations room said in an announcement that it had been an exercise of “elite fighters” using light and medium-weight arms, and its objective was to examine the forces’ reaction speed and degree of preparedness in an emergency situation and Israeli attack. The announcement added that the exercise included various tactical scenarios, the most prominent of which was an invasion of enemy lines and the abduction of IDF soldiers (joint operations room Telegram channel, December 28, 2022).
- “Resistance sources” [Palestinian terrorist organization sources] reported that the exercise was preplanned and a continuation of the military exercises held during the two previous years. However, it was carried out as a surprise to examine the degree of the operatives’ preparedness and their response. It was intended to examine the deployment of the “resistance” [terrorist operatives] in future clashes with Israel in light of the policies of the new Israeli government, which were liable to push for new campaigns. In addition, the exercise was held at a designated military site called the Lion’s Den, which belonged to the joint operations room and situated in the Beit Lahia area (northern Gaza Strip) (Lebanese daily newspaper al-Akhbar, December 29, 2022).
- PIJ figure Ahmed al-Mudallal said the exercise had several aspects, the most important of which was its message of the unity, strength and firmness of the “resistance” [Palestinian terrorist organizations], which, he claimed, became stronger after each campaign against Israel. He added that the exercise was held in response to IDF exercises in the “settlements” near the Gaza Strip, and was meant to display the strength of the “resistance,” its development and the means and knowledge at its disposal, and to stress its preparedness (Shams News, December 28, 2022).
Simulating the abduction of IDF soldiers
(joint operations room Telegram channel, December 28, 2022).
Right: Displacing the Israeli flag. Left: A terrorist operative holds a picture of Nasser Abu Hamid, the security prisoner who died of a terminal illness in an Israeli jail, which bears the inscription, “We won’t forget…We won’t forgive;” the picture was left on the field (joint operations room Telegram channel, December 28, 2023).
Interview with Ziyad al-Nakhalah
- PIJ leader Ziyad al-Nakhalah was interviewed by the Hezbollah-affiliated al-Mayadeen TV channel in Lebanon via Twitter Space. He related to issues in the Palestinian arena (al-Mayadeen, December 29, 2022):
- The new Israeli government: The composition of the new Israeli government, he claimed, shows it has no room for coexistence with the Palestinian people and no place for it in its territory. “The new occupation government” wants to complete the settling of Judea and Samaria and the Palestinians will confront them.
- The tense situation in Judea and Samaria: What is occurring today is a genuine armed intifada and [the PIJ is] coordinated with “resistance battalions” [terrorist networks] in Judea and Samaria. The Gaza Strip will support Judea and Samaria when the time and place are right if the situation demands its intervention.
- The issue of the prisoners: The prisoners are the top priority for the Palestinian people and “resistance forces” [terrorist organizations], especially the PIJ’s military wing. They spare no efforts to capture Israeli soldiers.
- Aid from Iran and Hezbollah: Iran and Hezbollah support the “Palestinian fighters” [terrorist operatives]. The PIJ has had continuous relations with Hezbollah leader for years and he plays an important role in the “resistance” in general and the PIJ in particular.
Street signs in the Gaza Strip for the anniversary of the death of Qassem Soleimani
- As the third anniversary of the killing of Qassem Soleimani approaches, signs have been hung in the streets of the Gaza Strip with his picture and his statement that Iran is a friend of “Palestine” and its supporters are friends of Iran, and the enemies of “Palestine” are the enemies of Iran (Abdallah al-Madhoun’s Twitter account, December 29, 2022; Hashem Muhammad al-Ghazi’s Twitter account, December 31, 2022).
Street signs in Gaza. Right: Abdallah al-Madhoun’s Twitter account, December 29, 2022. Left: Hashem Muhammad al-Ghazi’s Twitter account, December 31, 2022.
- Majdi al-Mughrabi, a Salafist sheikh from Rafah, harshly criticized the signs, claiming that the Hamas government should have prevented them from being hung. He promised that any such sign hung in the Rafah district, where he lived, would be torn down (Majdi al-Mughrabi’s Facebook page, December 31, 2022). Note: Majdi opposed Iran’s regional involvement, especially in the Gaza Strip, and two years ago tore down a picture of Qassem Soleimani.
The UN vote to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for an advisory opinion
- On the night of December 30, 2022, the UN General Assembly voted in favor of a Palestinian resolution to ask the ICJ for an advisory opinion regarding the legal implications of Israel’s [alleged] ongoing violations of the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination, and to investigate how the continuing “occupation” influences the legal status of the “occupied territory” and the possible implications for Israel’s international relations. The PA was particularly pleased by the vote, which it perceives as another Palestinian “victory” in the international arena and an opportunity for additional achievements. Hamas also welcomed the vote, but some were less enthusiastic.
Palestinian reactions to the swearing in of the new Israeli government
- On December 29, 2022, the new Israeli government was sworn in. Following the ceremony many Palestinians harshly criticized the government and its declared policies. That was accompanied by international propaganda activities warning of the dangers inherent in the government. For example:
- The PA foreign ministry issued a statement in English rejecting the new government’s basic platform based, the ministry claimed, on annexation, violence, racism and incitement to ethnic cleansing. According to the announcement, the Palestinians regard the agenda as a threat to them and their rights, therefore, the international community has to be responsible and refuse to cooperate with the government (PA foreign ministry website, December 29, 2022).
- Palestinian foreign minister Riyad al-Maliki, on a visit to Brazil, met with ambassadors from the Arab states and briefed them on the situation in the Palestinian arena following the swearing in of the government in Israel. He claimed the coming days would be complicated because the Israeli government would work to expand the settlements in the Palestinian territories. He also briefed them on Israel’s [alleged] activities against the Palestinians which he compared to “war crimes” (PA foreign ministry website, January 1, 2023).
Riyad al-Maliki with Arab ambassadors in Brazil (PA foreign ministry website, January 1, 2023).
- Hamas spokesman Hazem Qassem said the stated policies of the new Israeli government confirmed its “fascism” towards the Palestinians, their holy places and the prisoners, and its intention to expand the settlements and annex Judea and Samaria by force. He stressed that the Palestinian “resistance” [terrorist organizations] would not allow the Israeli government to cross its red lines and harm the Palestinians or their holy places (Hamas website, December 29, 2022).
Cartoon of the dangers inherent in the new Israeli government and its racist laws
(al-Quds al-Arabi, December 28, 2023).
Events marking the anniversary of Fatah’s founding
- The Fatah movement marked its 58th anniversary with a series of events and ceremonies in Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip. The main rally was held in Ramallah on December 29, 2022. To symbolize the founding of Fatah, deputy Fatah chairman Mahmoud al-‘Aloul and the mother of recently deceased security prisoner Nasser Abu Hamid lit a torch.
- Mahmoud al-‘Aloul gave a speech praising all the shaheeds, mentioning each by name, including those who killed Israelis in Bnei Brak and on Dizengoff Street in Tel Aviv. Fathi Hazem, the father of Raad Hazem, the terrorist who carried out the attack on Dizengoff Street on April 7, 2022, and Nasser Abu Hamid’s mother sat on the stage and were honored and applauded (Mahmoud al-‘Aloul’s Facebook page, December 29, 2022).
- Muhammad Shtayyeh gave a speech honoring Fathi Hazem and Nasser Abu Hamid’s mother, who sat next to him on stage, and claimed the Palestinians would follow in their footsteps until the establishment of an independent state, stating that the “struggle” on the ground would fill the political vacuum (Muhammad Shtayyeh’s Facebook page, December 29, 2022).
The Fatah rally. Right: Shtayyeh gives the key address at the main Fatah rally in Ramallah; next to him is Fathi Hazem (Wafa, December 29, 2022).
- A recorded speech by Mahmoud Abbas was aired on the evening of December 31, 2022, in which he said that the [alleged] “racist programs” of the Israeli government would fail, adding that the Palestinian people stood firm and would overthrow the extremist plots. He warned that the continuation of Israeli “aggression” against the Palestinian people would not lead to security or peace, and claimed the Palestinian people had been attached to their land historically and legally for 5000 years [sic] but had been uprooted by Israel’s aggression and terrorism, which was attempting to distort historical fact [sic]. He said he saluted the “popular resistance” [popular terrorism], and would not abandon the prisoners in Israeli jails, the wounded nor the families of the shaheeds (Mahmoud Abbas’ Facebook page, December 31, 2022).
- The main Fatah rally in the Gaza Strip was held in al-Katiba Square in Gaza City. A speech was given by Ahmed Hilles, a member of Fatah’s Central Committee and the movement’s representative in the Gaza Strip. He mentioned the new Israeli government and said Fatah would continue its course until victory and the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital (Paltoday, December 31. 2022).
The Fatah rally in Gaza City (Twitter account of photojournalist Hassan Aslih, December 31, 2022).
- For the events, Fatah issued a video of a march of armed operatives and pictures of terrorists who carried out attacks in recent months. Some of the pictures were of terrorists who did not belong to Fatah, among them Uday al-Tamimi, who carried out at the Shuafat Crossing and in Ma’aleh Adumim in October 2022, and Muhammad al-Jabari, a Hamas terrorist operative who carried out an attack in Kiryat Arba in October 2022 (Fatah Twitter account, December 29, 2022).
Pictures from the video. Right: Uday al-Tamimi. Left: Muhammad al-Jabari (Fatah Twitter account, December 29, 2022).
The PLO’s anti-apartheid department holds a press conference
- On December 28, 2022, the PLO’s anti-apartheid department, which is preparing for the first national anti-apartheid meeting, held a press conference in Ramallah during which Dr. Maher Amer, the secretary general of the anti-apartheid committee, presented the “declaration of the struggle against apartheid and settlement colonialism” which was formulated during the committee. Ramzi Rabah, head of the PLO’s anti-apartheid department, stressed the need to initiate a Palestinian, Arab and international campaign, official and popular, to determine that the “racist, fascist parties” in the Israeli government (“the apartheid state”) were terrorist organizations and relations with them should be banned.
- The signers of the declaration noted the need for the international community, especially the UN, to take legal responsibility to end the “occupation” and the settlements, and to dismantle “Israel’s colonial system,” one of whose manifestations was apartheid. It had to impose sanctions on Israel to make it obey international law and UN resolutions, especially Resolution 2334, which condemned the settlements and called for them to be dismantled. They also noted the need to relate to Israeli political leaders and senior security and military figures as war criminals, prosecute them and prevent them from entering foreign countries, and to exert pressure on the ICC to prosecute them (Facebook page of the PLO’s anti-apartheid department, December 28, 2022).
The press conference in Ramallah, headed by Ramzi Rabah (Facebook page of the PLO’s anti-apartheid department, December 28, 2022).
Perpetuating the Nakba and the Palestinian narrative
- In preparation for the 75th anniversary of the Nakba, Mahmoud Abbas decided a memorial should be constructed and instructed the government prepare one as quickly as possible (Wafa, December 20, 2022). Therefore, at the meeting held on December 27, 2022, and chaired by Muhammad Shtayyeh, the government announced a competition for designing the memorial. It would be open to all, including artists, engineering offices, engineering faculties and schools. The date for beginning the project would be determined during the first quarter of 2023. The PA government also voted to establish a film commission which would encourage the production of movies to reinforce and document the Palestinian narrative and distribute them all over the world (Wafa, December 27, 2022).
The Palestinian economy showed an improvement during 2022
- At the December 27, 2022 weekly PA government meeting, PA Prime Minister Muhammad Shtayyeh related to the PA’s economic situation for the past 12 months. He said that despite the financial crises during the year, such as the significant drop in international aid, Israel’s ongoing deductions of PA tax revenues, the coronavirus crisis and the war in Ukraine, their situation was better than it had been in 2021. According to the data Muhammad Shtayyeh presented, in 2022 the Palestinian economy grew by 3.6%, investments grew by 15.3%, the GNP rose by 11%, unemployment fell from 19% to 12.6%, and exports increased by 7.3% (Wafa, December 27, 2022).
Rocks, Molotov cocktails and other attacks
- In Judea, Samaria and east Jerusalem Palestinians continued throwing rocks and Molotov cocktails at Israeli vehicles driving on the roads. The more prominent events were the following:
- January 2, 2023: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli bus and other vehicles in Hawwara (south of Nablus). The previous day rocks were thrown at an Israeli bus in the same area. No casualties were reported; the bus was damaged.
- January 1, 2023: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli vehicle near Beit Horon (west of Ramallah). No casualties were reported; the vehicle was damaged.
- January 1, 2023: Rocks were thrown from a passing car at an Israeli vehicle near Umm Safa (northwest of Ramallah). No casualties were reported; the vehicle was damaged.
- December 29, 2022: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli vehicle near Burin (south of Nablus). No casualties were reported; the vehicle was damaged.
- December 29, 2022: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli vehicle near Ofra (northeast of Ramallah). No casualties were reported; the vehicle was damaged.
- December 29, 2022: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli vehicle in Hawwara (south of Nablus). No casualties were reported; the vehicle was damaged.
- December 28, 2022: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli bus between Hermesh and Mevo Dotan (southwest of Jenin). No casualties or damage were reported.
- December 28, 2022: Rocks were thrown at an Israeli vehicle near al-Fawwar (southwest of Hebron). No casualties were reported; the vehicle was damaged.
 A significant attack is defined by the ITIC as involving shooting, stabbing, a vehicular attack, the use of IEDs, or a combination of the above. Stones and Molotov cocktails thrown by Palestinians are not included ↑
 On September 14, 2022, the two drove to the Jalameh Crossing to carry out a shooting attack. The attack was prevented in a clash with IDF fighters which resulted in the death of an IDF officer. ↑
 Former commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps' Qods Force. ↑
 For further information see the January 2, 2023 bulletin, "A Palestinian 'victory' in the international arena: the UN votes to ask the International Court of Justice for a legal opinion regarding Israel's practices in the territories." ↑
 For further information see the December 18, 2022 bulletin, "The Palestinian committee to “fight apartheid” and slander Israel meets for the first time to discuss policy." ↑
 Nakba is Arabic for catastrophe. The Palestinians use it to refer to the events of 1948, which led to the establishment of the State of Israel and the creation of the Palestinian refugee problem. ↑
 Information and pictures from Rescue Without Borders in Judea and Samaria unless otherwise noted. ↑