Muhammad al-Amadi (second from left), chairman of the Qatari committee to rebuild the Gaza Strip, and Muhammad Mustafa (third from left), chairman of the Palestine Investment Fund, at the ceremony launching Watania Mobile in the Gaza Strip (Facebook page of Watania Mobile, October 24, 2017).
Saleh al-'Arouri interviewed in Iran (al-Alam TV, October 22, 2017).
Hamas leader abroad Maher Salah, at a conference in Istanbul (Facebook page of the Global Coalition for the Support of Jerusalem and Palestine, October 20, 2017; Palinfo Twitter account, October 20, 2017).
Azzam al-Ahmed, a member of Fatah's Central Committee, interviewed by the Russian RT channel in Arabic (YouTube, October 19, 2017).
Yahya al-Sinwar meets with young people in the Gaza Strip (Hamas website, October 19, 2017).
- This past week was relatively quiet. A vehicular attack was apparently prevented in central of Israel and a stabbing attack was prevented at the Gush Etzion Junction. The Gaza Strip remained quiet.
- Implementing the Hamas-Fatah reconciliation continued, although senior Hamas figures asserted their refusal to discuss the future of the military-terrorist wing and its weapons. They also stated they would not surrender their “right” to continue the “resistance” (i.e., terrorism). Fatah spokesmen, on the other hand, tried to circumvent the problem by claiming that the subject was currently not on the agenda and priority was being given to issues relating to the daily lives of the residents of the Gaza Strip. In addition, Yahya al-Sinwar, head of Hamas’ political bureau in the Gaza Strip, said Hamas would not discuss recognition of Israel but rather the question of “when Israel will be eliminated.”
- This past week a Hamas delegation headed by Saleh al-‘Arouri, deputy head of Hamas’ political bureau, visited Iran. Interviewed by the Iranian media, he said Hamas would not surrender “the weapons of the resistance,” adding that Iran was the main supporter of Hamas’ military wing “in all areas.” He said the delegation had discussed increasing Iranian aid to Hamas. Other spokesmen said Hamas was interested in closer strategic ties with Iran.
Terrorist Attacks and Attempted Terrorist Attacks
- Vehicular attack prevented – On October 20, 2017, Israeli policemen identified a stolen truck near Beit Dagan (central Israel) and ordered the driver to halt. Instead of stopping the driver drove the truck away, hitting a vehicle and a patrol car. The driver, 39 years old from Ramallah, was eventually detained. During interrogation he said he had stolen the truck in Holon and intended to carry out a vehicular attack against Israeli soldiers in the center of the country (Israeli media, October 20, 2017).
The truck stolen by the Palestinian to carry out a vehicular attack (Palinfo Twitter account, October 20, 2017).
- Stabbing attack prevented – On October 18, 2017, a Palestinian armed with a knife attempted to carry out a stabbing attack at the Gush Etzion Junction. He ran towards soldiers standing at the junction. A soldier saw a suspicious object in his hand and initiated the standard detention procedure, but the Palestinian waved the knife and moved towards him. The soldier shot him in the leg. The Palestinian, who came from Hebron, was evacuated to a hospital for treatment. The Palestinian media, as usual, distorted the facts, reporting soldiers had shot a Palestinian running to catch a bus (Ma’an, October 18, 2017).
Riots, clashes and popular terrorism
- This past week Palestinians continued throwing stones and Molotov cocktails. The Israeli security forces carried out counterterrorism activities throughout Judea and Samaria, detaining Palestinians suspected of terrorist activity and seizing large quantities of weapons. The more prominent occurrences were the following:
- October 22, 2017 – The Israeli security forces detained a Palestinian who threw stones near Azoun (east of Qalqilya). A search revealed he was carrying a knife. He was taken for interrogation (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 22, 2017).
- October 22, 2017 – A 16-year-old Palestinian girl went to a roadblock near the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron and said she intended to carry out an attack. Examination revealed she had personal problems and wanted to be detained by the Israeli security forces. She was detained and taken for interrogation (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 22, 2017).
- October 21, 2017 – Stones were thrown at an Israel vehicle near Nebi Saleh (northwest of Ramallah). There were no casualties. The front windshield of the car was shattered (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 21, 2017).
- October 21, 2017 – A Palestinian threw a stone at the head of a 12-year-old boy near Tel Romeida in Hebron. (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 21, 2017). The boy lost consciousness and was taken to a hospital.
- October 21, 2017 – Israeli policemen were called to Issawiya (north Jerusalem) to investigate the report of a burning car. When they arrived stones were thrown at them; two policemen were wounded (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 21, 2017).
- October 19, 2017 – An IDF soldier was wounded by stones thrown at an IDF force operating in the Dheisheh refugee camp in Bethlehem (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 19, 2017).
- October 18, 2017 – The Israeli security forces stopped a car at a roadblock near Gush Etzion. There were weapons in the car. (Facebook page of Red Alert, October 18, 2017).
Significant Terrorist Attacks in Judea, Samaria and Jerusalem since September 2015
Rocket Fire Attacking Israel
- This past week no rocket hits were identified in Israeli territory.
Monthly Distribution of Rocket Hits in Israel since January 2016
*Six of the rockets fired in February 2017 were launched from the Sinai Peninsula at Israeli territory, apparently by ISIS’s Sinai Province.
** The rocket fired in April was launched from the Sinai Peninsula by ISIS’s Sinai Province.
*** In October 2017 two rockets were fired from the northern Sinai Peninsula by ISIS’s Sinai Province. They fell in an open area in the western Negev.
Annual Distribution of Rocket Hits in Israel’s South
Preventing the smuggling of military gloves
- The spokesmen’s units of the Ministry of Defense and the Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories said in a joint statement that thousands of pairs of military gloves had been seized. They were seized at the Kerem Shalom crossing on suspicion of being smuggled to the terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip. They were part of a shipment of clothing.
Military gloves seized at the Kerem Shalom crossing (Twitter account of the Israeli Ministry of Defense, October 23, 2017)
The supply of electricity in the Gaza Strip
- In the wake of the announcement of the Fatah-Hamas reconciliation, promises continue that the supply of electricity in the Gaza Strip will improve. Zafer Melhem, acting chairman of the Palestinian energy authority, said the energy authority had formulated a comprehensive plan to rehabilitate the electrical grid in the Gaza Strip and that by the end of the year the residents could expect to notice a significant improvement in the flow of electricity (Paltoday, October 22, 2017).
- An American company reported that around April 2018 it would begin the construction of three solar power plants in the Gaza Strip. They will be constructed in three areas and each will provide 40 megawatts (quds.net, October 19, 2017).
Cell phone company launched in the Gaza Strip
- Muhammad al-Amadi, chairman of the Qatar committee to rebuild the Gaza Strip, entered the Gaza Strip through the Erez crossing to participate in a ceremony launching a Palestinian cell phone company called Watania Mobile and to inaugurate other projects (Palinfo Twitter account, October 212, 2017). On October 23, 2017, the ceremony for launching the activity of Watania Mobile was held, attended by Muhammad Mustafa, chairman of the Palestine Investment Fund (one of the investors and founders of the company), Muhammad al-Amadi, investors from Qatar and businessmen from Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip. On October 24, 2017, the company began providing service to the residents of the Gaza Strip, whose area code is 056 (Facebook page of Watania Mobile, October 24, 2017).
Hamas delegation visits Iran
- A Hamas delegation visited Iran, headed by Saleh al-‘Arouri, recently elected as deputy head of Hamas’ political bureau. Members of the delegation included Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri, Hamas representative in Iran Khaled al-Qadoumi, and other senior Hamas figures (Hamas website, October 20, 2017). The members of the delegation met with Ali Larijani, head of the Shura council, Ali-Akbar Velayati, advisor to the Iranian supreme leader for international affairs, and Ali Shamkhani, secretary of the Supreme Council for National Security.
Right: Members of the Hamas delegation headed by Saleh al-‘Arouri arrive in Tehran (Hamas website, October 20, 2017). Left: Cartoon of Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu’s reaction to the Hamas delegation’s visit to Tehran (alresalah.net, October 23, 2017).
- Saleh al-‘Arouri met with Ali Shamkhani, secretary of the Supreme Council for National Security, and told him that the United States and the “Zionist regime” were concerned about the change in the regional balance of power, which was tipping in favor of the peoples and governments fighting terrorist groups. He said on his first visit to Iran since having been elected to his position his intention was to strengthen ties with Iran, which supports the Palestinian people (ISNA, October 20, 2017).
- Senior Hamas figures gave a series of interviews where they stressed that the objective of the visit was to strengthen ties with Iran, but not at the expense of the internal Palestinian reconciliation. They also praised Iran’s support for Hamas. Some of their statements were the following:
- Saleh al-‘Arouri, deputy head of Hamas’ political bureau, said the delegation’s visit to Iran had two objectives: to update all those supporting the Palestinian cause about the reconciliation agreement and to show Hamas’ defiance to the reaction of Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu to the agreement. Saleh al-‘Arouri stressed that Hamas would not surrender the weapons of the “resistance” and would not recognize Israel. He said Iran was the main supporter of Hamas’ military wing and its support was manifested in all areas. He also said the main issue the delegation had come to discuss with senior Iranian figures was an increase in Iranian aid. He said Iran was the main and primary support of Hamas’ military wing in developing its capabilities, whether its level of expertise or direct support. He added that Hamas hoped Iranian aid would continue to “defeat the occupation” (al-Alam, October 22, 2017).
- Khaled al-Qadoumi, Hamas representative in Iran, said the visit of the Hamas delegation was part of its diplomatic activities to report on recent developments in the Palestinian cause, especially national issues related to the fight against Israel. He said Hamas was working to strengthen its strategic relations with Iran and said Iran supported and would continue to support the Palestinian “resistance” [i.e., terrorism] in all areas (alresalah.net, October 22, 2017).
- Hamas spokesman Taher al-Nunu said the objective of visiting Iran was to strengthen bilateral strategic relations. During the visit, he said, they had discussed recent regional developments in the Palestinian cause, challenges with Israel and the United States, and the issue of the reconciliation. He said Hamas was interested in strengthening its ties to regional countries, among them Iran and Qatar. He also said relations would not come at the expense of the reconciliation or relations with Egypt (al-Mayadeen, October 20, 2017).
- Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri said the objective of the visit was to update the Iranians about recent developments in the internal Palestinian reconciliation, especially regarding the issue of the “resistance” and its weapons. He said the main issue discussed was Iran’s support for the “resistance” and the American efforts to harm it. Sami Abu Zuhri said that Hamas would cooperate with all those who supported the Palestinian cause and that the direct connection between Hamas and Iran would not harm the reconciliation agreement (al-Mayadeen, October 21, 2017).
Maher Salah made responsible for Hamas abroad
- Dr. Maher Salah was made responsible for Hamas abroad. His name appeared in a Hamas press release about a meeting which approved the results and recommendations of the final report prepared by the committee that investigated the killing of Tunisian engineer Muhammad al-Zoari, who worked with Hamas’ military-terrorist wing. According to the press release, Muhammad Nizal, deputy chairman of the Hamas abroad and Rafat Mara, head of Hamas’ information department and senior figure in the Hamas leadership in Lebanon, had been charged with announcing the results of the report in the near future. On October 20, 2017, Dr. Maher Salah also participated at a conference in Istanbul (Palinfo, October 20, 2017).
Implementing the agreement
Beginnings of implementation on the ground
- The agreement having been signed, the Palestinian Authority (PA) and Hamas have begun activities to implement it on the ground. Hamas’s national relations department in the Gaza Strip met in the various districts with senior figures from Hamas and other organizations to inculcate them with Hamas’ determination to implement the reconciliation agreement (Hamas website, October 18, 2017; Palinfo, October 19, 2017).
- In the meantime delegations of ministers and work teams have begun arriving in the Gaza Strip (entering through the Erez crossing). Their mission is to provide the impetus for the transition of authority to the national consensus government. Ziyad Abu Amro, deputy prime minister, also arrived in the Gaza Strip to follow the process of transferring government institutions (Wafa, October 18, 2017). According to reports, many ministers have taken charge of their ministries and that the judicial administrative committee responsible for the issue of positions has begun its work (Palestinian TV, October 22, 2017). The national consensus government, in the summary of its weekly meeting, announced its intention to hold weekly meetings in rotation between the Gaza Strip and Ramallah.
- According to Hamas spokesman Hazem Qassem, the reconciliation agreement will be implemented in accordance with its articles and dates. He claimed Hamas was completely serious about the reconciliation and was working to ease the transfer of authority over the Gaza Strip to the government (Dunia al-Watan, October 23, 2017). Ziyad Abu Amro, deputy prime minister of the national consensus government, also said he was satisfied with the rate of progress of the transfer of authority in the Gaza Strip to the national consensus government. He said the judicial administrative committee responsible for regulating the status of the employees was proceeding properly. He added that some of the ministers had received responsibility for their ministries and were monitoring the activity in the Gaza Strip through their own teams. He said he hoped the residents of the Gaza Strip would feel the results in the near future.
Cartoons in the Hamas media about the difficulties of implementing the agreement (alresalah.net, October 19, 2017).
The issue of the weapons of the “resistance” [i.e., the terrorist organizations]
- Some of the statements are the following:
- Fatah spokesman Usama al-Qawasmeh said that although all the Palestinian factions respect Egypt’s position, the issue of the weapons of the “resistance” is an internal matter. He called on the Arab media to focus on the problematic nature of the Israeli “occupation” and not on internal Palestinian issues which the Palestinians have to solve by themselves (al-Arabiya al-Hadath, October 20 2017).
- Azzam al-Ahmed, a member of Fatah’s Central Committee, said in an interview with the Russian channel RT in Arabic that the issue was not going to be discussed now. He said the “resistance” and its weapons were an internal Palestinian matter bound up with commitments of the PLO. He claimed that since 2014 [Operation Protective Edge] weapons had not been used, not by Hamas and not by any other organization. He said they would not waive their right to use every method of “struggle,” and that the “resistance” was a national decision and not a decision of any organization (YouTube, October 19, 2017).
- Ahmed Majdalani, a member of the PLO’s Executive Committee, said the issue of Hamas’ weapons had not yet been discussed and was not on the PA’s list of priorities because priority was being given to issues related to the daily lives of the Palestinian population. He said that eventually it would be discussed. He said the issue of weapons was unacceptable to Fatah and they would not accept the establishment of an organization in Palestine like Hezbollah (Palestinian TV, October 23, 2017).
- Musa Abu Marzouq, a member of Hamas’ political bureau, said the issue of security was only raised for the first time during the last meeting in Egypt and that the sides had agreed it was an important issue that had to be deal with in a way that would not have a negative effect on the reconciliation. He said the Palestinians viewed question of the weapons of the “resistance” as a red line. He added that weapons were used in the Gaza Strip in accordance with the highest national interests. He said Hamas wanted to be party to decisions about war or peace, and claimed the “resistance” was the way to deal with the occupation and restore the Palestinians’ rights (al-Youm al-Sabaa, October 18, 2017). Musa Abu Marzouq later denied claims that the issue of the weapons and tunnels had been discussed with Fatah in Cairo, claiming Hamas would not agree that such issues would be discussed (al-Araby al-Jadeed, October 22, 2017).
Reactions to Israel’s position on the reconciliation
- In response to the internal Palestinian reconciliation the Israeli Security Cabinet stated Israel would not negotiate with a Palestinian government that relied on Hamas as long as Hamas had not disarmed, recognized Israel and returned the bodies of IDF soldiers and missing Israelis it held.
- Senior figures in the PA and Hamas regarded Israel’s statement as an attempt to intervene in internal PA matters and called for the implementation of the agreement to be accelerated. Nabil Abu Rudeina, advisor to Mahmoud Abbas, said the decision of the Israeli Security Cabinet would not stop the progress of the reconciliation because the Palestinian leadership believed in national unity and the advancement of the interests of the Palestinian people. At the same time, Nabil Shaath, advisor to Mahmoud Abbas for foreign affairs, said the Israeli government did not side with peace and the internal Palestinian reconciliation, and therefore it was trying to put obstacles in its path. He added that the PA did not accept the Israeli conditions for peace. Fatah spokesman Usama al-Qawasmeh said the end of the Palestinian schism was a national interest and that the Palestinians would not allow Israel to veto Fatah’s independent decisions (Fatah Facebook page, October 18, 2017).
- Izzat al-Rishq, responsible for Arab relations in Hamas’ political bureau, said Israel could not impose conditions on the PA regarding anything that had to do with the reconciliation. He said Israel’s reaction reveals its concern about the unity of the Palestinian people against Israel’s terrorism and aggression (Twitter account of Izzat al-Rishq, October 18, 2017). Hamas spokesman Fawzi Barhoum said Israeli intervention in internal Palestinian issues was unacceptable. He said the reaction of the Israeli government should be to strengthen the internal Palestinian front for reconciliation and the resolution of all the issues (Facebook page of Fawzi Barhoum, October 17, 2017).
Yahya al-Sinwar relates to the internal Palestinian reconciliation
- On October 19, 2017, Yahya al-Sinwar held a meeting closed to the media with about 250 young people from the Gaza Strip. He called on them to support the reconciliation process, which was, he said, a good opportunity for solving the problem of their employment. The following are the main points he made (Hamas website, Palinfo, Safa and Paltoday, October 19, 2017):
- Reconciliation with Fatah – Al-Sinwar said Hamas had made its decision and there was no going back. Hamas would not return to being a side in the [internal Palestinian] schism. He said the reconciliation could not be allowed to fail because its failure would threaten the future of the Palestinian national program. In response to accusations that Hamas had been the loser in the agreement, he said the only winners were the Palestinian people and the Palestinian cause, and that Hamas was willing to make concessions for the good of the Palestinian people. He called on Fatah’s Central Committee and the PLO’s Executive Committee to hold their next meetings, headed by Mahmoud Abbas, in the Gaza Strip. That would signify, he said, that the schism had ended [not only in theory but] in practice. He promised that he personally would ensure Mahmoud Abbas’ safety and security.
- Recognition of Israel – Al-Sinwar rejected the terms of the Israeli Cabinet, which include recognition of Israel. He claimed the cabinet could not force conditions on Hamas regarding the reconciliation, which was a purely Palestinian issue. He said no one could extract recognition of Israel from Hamas or discuss it with Hamas. “The time to discuss recognition of Israel has passed, and today we discuss when Israel will be eliminated.”
- Disarming Hamas – Al-Sinwar claimed Hamas was not a terrorist organization but rather a “resistance movement” working for freedom and “fighting the occupation according to the rules of international law and human rights.” Therefore, he claimed, no one In the world could take Hamas’ weapons away. He claimed Hamas would continue ceaselessly to build up its [military-terrorist] force.
- Lifting the punishment measures [imposed by Mahmoud Abbas] – Al-Sinwar said that lifting the sanctions imposed on the Gaza Strip was “a popular demand,” and that everyone had to act for their removal and the success of the reconciliation.
- Exchange of prisoners – Al-Sinwar stressed that the Israeli soldiers held prisoner would not see the light of day until Palestinian prisoners, such as Hassan Salameh, Abbas al-Sayid, Mahmoud Issa, Marwan Barghouti and Ahmed Saadat were released.
Israel closes Palestinian media offices because of incitement
- Before dawn on October 18, 2017, the Israeli security forces closed and sealed (for six months) the offices of 12 local media outlets in the regions of Ramallah, Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem for broadcasting and spreading incitement to violence. Among the offices closed were Palmedia, Trans Media and Ramsat (al-Quds, and al-Araby al-Jadeed, October 18, 2017).
Right: The office of Palmedia in al-Bireh. Left: The office of Palmedia in Hebron (al-Quds, October 19, 2017).
- The national consensus government strongly condemned the entrance of Israeli forces into the offices of Palestinian media. Yusuf Mahmoud, spokesman for the national consensus government, claimed the action was in gross violation of international law and part of the ideology of the occupation, which was not prepared for peace. He claimed Israel attacked journalists and their institutions so they could not transmit the full picture of Israel’s “horrific acts.” He called on the international community to stop Israel’s actions (Wafa and Ma’an, October 18, 2017).
- The Palestinian ministry of information issued a statement calling the closing of the media offices “the height of terrorism.” The ministry claimed closing the offices was a crime against the international media and established the path of Israel’s terrorism. He claimed the decision to close the offices violated international law. Genuine terrorism, he claimed, was not the incitement of the offices but rather Israel’s settlement project. The ministry called on the Security Council and the International Federation of Journalists to protect Palestinian journalists and their institutions (Wafa, October 18, 2017)..
- Husam Badran, a member of Hamas’ political bureau, claimed closing the offices proved Israel was concerned the media would expose its “crimes” to the world. He claimed it proved the media had a strong influence on the existing struggle. He called on the media to continue shaming Israel and its aggression (Hamas website, October 18, 2017).
Palestinian protests for the 100th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration
- November 2, 2017, will mark the 100th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration. Britain has planned a ceremony with the participation of senior Israeli figures. The PA is planning to mark the day with a series of global protests. The Palestinians are also critical of Britain and threaten to bring legal suits against it. Dozens of Palestinians held a demonstration in front of the British cultural center in Ramallah, initiated by nationalist and Islamist forces. They called for Britain to apologize for the Balfour Declaration and cancel the ceremony planned for its 100th anniversary (al-Araby al-Jadeed, October 18, 2017). The Palestinian Solidarity Campaign (PSC), a British organization, is organizing a march and rally in London for November 4, 2017. Two of the speakers at the rally will be Mustafa Barghouti and Manuel Hassassian, the Palestinian representative in Britain, (Palestinian Solidarity Campaign website).
The demonstration in Ramallah (al-Araby al-Jadeed, October 18, 2017).
- Some of the statements made about the 100th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration were the following:
- Riyad al-Maliki, the PA’s foreign minister, threatened that if Britain went ahead and held a ceremony for the anniversary, the Palestinian leadership would continue legal steps in accordance with instructions from Mahmoud Abbas. He claimed that preparations were being made for a legal suit against Britain, including a demand that Britain restore the rights of the Palestinian people and correct its “historic mistake” (al-Araby al-Jadeed, October 22, 2017).
- Zakaria al-Agha, a member of the PLO’s Executive Committee and head of its department of refugee affairs, claimed Britain had to apologize for the Balfour Declaration and not hold ceremonies in its honor. He claimed that Britain’s position would be met with formal Palestinian suits against the country in international courts. He claimed the suits would be withdrawn if Britain reneged and apologized to the Palestinian people, recognized the fact that the Balfour Declaration was a historic mistake and announced its recognition of the Palestinian state (Wafa, October 19, 2017).
- Ahmed Majdalani, a member of the PLO’s Executive Committee, claimed Britain had to meet three demands to “atone” for the Balfour Declaration: it had to apologize to the Palestinians for the nakba [catastrophe] resulting from the Balfour Declaration; it had to pay reparations to the refugees; and it had to recognize the Palestinian state. He claimed the Palestinian leadership was operating at the legal level to bring a suit against the British government (Dunia al-Watan, October 18, 2017).
- Shawan Jabarin, head of al-Haq, claimed a team of Palestinian lawyers were discussing whether to start proceedings in the British legal system about the British Mandate and not the Balfour Declaration. He claimed a legal opinion would be presented by an international team of lawyers about the possible success of such a suit. The opinion, he claimed, would be transmitted to the Palestinian leadership for examination. He claimed that such a step had to be supported and accompanied by a broad media campaign (Dunia al-Watan, October 23, 2017).
Memorial unveiled and street named for Saddam Hussein in Qalqilya
- On October 18, 2017, a memorial was unveiled and a street in Qalqilya was named for Saddam Hussein. The ceremony was attended by Raf’ Rawajba, the governor of the Qalqilya district; Rakad Salem, secretary of the Arab Liberation Front; and Hani J’aidi, a member of the Qalqilya municipality. According to Rawajba, Saddam Hussein was a symbol of courage, honor, creativity and challenge, like Yasser Arafat. He claimed with the deaths of the two the quality of Arabism had disappeared from the world, but that Mahmoud Abbas walked in the footsteps of “those two great leaders” (Ma’an, October 18, 2017).
Right: The governor of the Qalqilya district unveils a memorial and names a street for Saddam Hussein (Ma’an, October 18, 2017). Left: The memorial
(Facebook page of Shehab, October 22, 2017)
 A significant attack is defined by the ITIC as involving shooting, stabbing, a vehicular attack, the use of IEDs, or a combination of the above. Stones and Molotov cocktails thrown by Palestinians are not included. ↑
 The statistics do not include mortar shell fire or rockets which misfired and fell inside the Gaza Strip. ↑