Evidence of the terrorist organizations’ use of civilian facilities in the Gaza Strip

Rocket shafts located near the mosque.

Rocket shafts located near the mosque.

A tunnel shaft located inside a mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 20, 2023)

A tunnel shaft located inside a mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 20, 2023)

Rocket launching positions located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)

Rocket launching positions located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)

Weapons found in the mosque (IDF spokesperson, December 28, 2023)

Weapons found in the mosque (IDF spokesperson, December 28, 2023)

The tunnel shaft that was found in a school classroom (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)

The tunnel shaft that was found in a school classroom (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)

Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)

Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)

Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)

Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)

An anti-tank missile hidden under a baby bed (IDF spokesperson, November 21, 2023)

An anti-tank missile hidden under a baby bed (IDF spokesperson, November 21, 2023)

The weapons found under the children's beds (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)

The weapons found under the children's beds (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)

UNRWA boxes.

UNRWA boxes.

Overview[1]
  • Hamas, Hezbollah and many other terrorist organizations use civilian facilities and populations as shields to hide their military-terrorist activities. The use of civilian facilities and the civilian population was exposed and documented many times during the Second Lebanon War and in various IDF operations against the terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip, and in a very extensive way during the most recent war in the Gaza Strip.
  • Firing rockets and mortar shells from within population centers and public institutions such as hospitals and schools, and placing military facilities in or near them, are a well-known modus operandi used by Hamas and other terrorist organizations. Its objective is to protect Hamas operatives from IDF responses and increase their chances of survival. Claims and documentation of the use of Palestinian terrorist organizations, including Hamas, against the civilian population were raised as early as 2006. According to an article[2] by the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence, Hamas has been using the civilian population as human shields in conflicts with Israel since 2007.
  • The extensive use of civilian facilities, and of citizens as a “human shields” has many expressions, including the locations of headquarters and military bases, and hiding terrorists, in the heart of residential neighborhoods, in private homes or public institutions, launching rockets and mortar shells from populated areas, shooting from houses, mosques, schools and other public facilities, stockpiling weapons inside civilian homes, and using ambulances and rescue vehicles for operational needs. Obviously, the cynical and deliberate exploitation of a civilian population is a war crime, a crime against humanity and a flagrant violation of the basic principles of international law of armed conflict, which require a distinction between civilians and combatants.
  • Since the beginning of the war (October 7, 2023), the IDF has exposed the full extent of Hamas’ use of civilian facilities for military-terrorist purposes[3] after finding that Hamas had set up a significant part of its command network in the extensive tunnel system it constructed under civilian facilities especially the hospitals. It also became evident that Hamas used school buildings to store weapons, such as rockets, anti-tank missiles, launchers and automatic rifles. The military warehouses were found in close proximity to functioning classrooms or to a civilian population that found shelter in the schools. Mosques and private homes were used to store weapons and as hiding places for shafts that led to tunnels and as factories for the production of weapons.
  • Hamas’ use of civilian institutions and facilities for military-terrorist purposes is a deliberate strategy with several objectives. Its primary objective is to reduce damage to the military-terrorist assets of Hamas and other terrorist organizations and to grant them a kind of immunity from IDF activity, exploiting the knowledge that the IDF will avoid harming civilians as much as possible and therefore avoids attacking institutions such as hospitals and schools or non-combatant population concentrations. It is also intended to allow Hamas and other terrorist organizations to gain political-propaganda advantages in the battle for hearts and minds by representing Israel as attacking innocent civilians.
  • Following are examples revealed by the IDF forces during Operation Iron Swords showing the location of terrorist facilities in the heart of a civilian population.
Mosques
  • During the fighting, IDF forces have exposed various military uses by Hamas and other terrorist organizations of mosques throughout the Gaza Strip. Considerable evidence was exposed and documented of the storage of weapons in mosques, tunnel shafts located inside or near mosques that led to terrorist tunnels and the launching of rockets and mortar shells in close proximity to mosques. In the past as well, IDF forces were exposed to the organization’s exploitation of mosques for military-terrorist purposes. Some of the mosques are currently being used to shelter displaced persons from different parts of the Strip.
  • Regarding of the use of mosques for military purposes, there are a number of senior Muslim clerics, both Sunni and Shi’ite, the most prominent of whom are the Sunni Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi and the late Shi’ite Ayatollah Khomeini, who claimed that the use of a mosque for military purposes as part of jihad (“holy war”) is legitimate. Fatwas for the use of mosques are based on the Islamic oral tradition (hadiths) which state that the Prophet Muhammad himself used a mosque for military and political needs, in addition its classic function as a house of prayer for the faithful.[4]
  • The laws of war state unequivocally that religious buildings, including mosques, which are used for military purposes, lose the special protection given to them and thus expose themselves to attack in accordance with the laws of armed conflict. The terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip claim, mainly for the purposes of mobilizing public opinion, that the IDF’s damage to mosques, including those used by the military, is illegal and constitutes a violation of freedom of worship. However, the IDF’s actions in the Gaza Strip, as well as the activity undertaken by other countries, including the United States in Iraq, are consistent with the rules of international law.
  • During the war, the IDF fighters on the ground were exposed to the variety of uses by Hamas and other terrorist organizations of mosques in the Gaza Strip. The following examples were documented by the IDF spokesperson:
    • In Gaza City, terrorist facilities were exposed in the Abu Bakr Mosque, one of the most important mosques in the city (IDF spokesperson, November 13, 2023).
 A tunnel shaft located inside a mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 20, 2023)     Rocket shafts located near the mosque.
Right: Rocket shafts located near the mosque. Left: A tunnel shaft located inside a mosque
(IDF spokesperson, November 20, 2023)
    • In the Zeitoun neighborhood in Gaza City, IDF forces located a mosque which was used as a laboratory for the production of weapons (IDF spokesperson, November 20, 2023).
    • In the mosque in the Sheikh Zayed area in the northern Gaza Strip, the fighters located a vehicle containing many weapons which were apparently used by the nukhba terrorists for the attack on October 7; rocket launching positions were located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023).
Rocket launching positions located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)    Rocket launching positions located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)    Rocket launching positions located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)
Rocket launching positions located near the mosque (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)
    • In the Jabaliya refugee camp, the fighters exposed an RPG training facility hidden inside a mosque. An IED-production laboratory and large quantities of weapons were found in the mosque, some of which were packed in bags belonging to a civilian organization operating in the Gaza Strip (IDF website, December 11, 2023).
 A laboratory for the manufacture of IEDs found inside the mosque (IDF spokesperson, December 11, 2023)    The training facility located inside the mosque.
Right: The training facility located inside the mosque. Left: A laboratory for the manufacture of IEDs found inside the mosque (IDF spokesperson, December 11, 2023)
    • In the Jabalia area, IDF forces attacked a mosque that was used by the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) as an operational headquarters and a weapons warehouse (IDF spokesperson, December 1-3, 2023).
    • On December 8, 2023, IDF forces raided a mosque that contained Hamas terrorist facilities. A fighter jet destroyed the mosque and the underground facilities underneath it (IDF spokesperson, December 8, 2023).
A Hamas military facility located in a mosque in the Jabalia area (IDF spokesperson, October 10, 2023)
A Hamas military facility located in a mosque in the Jabalia area
(IDF spokesperson, October 10, 2023)
    • A mosque was found in Jabalia, in the center of which was an operations room used by Hamas terrorist operatives and connected to cameras for monitoring the activities of IDF forces (IDF spokesperson, December 15, 2023).
    • In the Khan Yunis area, the fighters identified an underground facility in a mosque. In one of the rooms, an IED was detonated and terrorists shot at the fighters (IDF spokesperson, December 28, 2023).
Weapons found in the mosque (IDF spokesperson, December 28, 2023)
Weapons found in the mosque (IDF spokesperson, December 28, 2023)
Educational Institutions
  • Educational institutions should not be attacked in times of war. That Hamas uses educational institutions for military-terrorist purposes in not new and was exposed in the past. The use of the educational institutions includes hiding weapons on school grounds, placing the route of tunnels and shafts under them, concentrating terrorist operatives and headquarters in schools and shooting at point-blank range from them. Hamas and the other terrorist organizations use them assuming that Israel will refrain from attacking them, thus increasing the terrorists’ chances of survival and preserving the weapons located there. During the summer, Hamas and the other terrorist organizations use the schools as locations for providing military and semi-military instruction and training to students as part of the summer camps they organize.
  • Obviously, the use of educational institutions for military-terrorist purposes endangers the students, the teaching staff and the many civilians currently sheltered in the schools and is a blatant violation of the international laws of war.[5]
Schools and kindergartens
  •   Some of the schools in the Gaza Strip are managed by UNRWA, some by the local authorities. The schools, mainly those of UNRWA, are currently being used to shelter civilians who were evacuated from their homes. After Israel made public the fact that weapons were found in a school in Gaza City, Hamas published a statement claiming that the IDF’s revelations were a continuation of the “lies” that Israel used to justify killing civilians and calling it “proof of Israel’s failure” (Hamas Telegram channel, December 23, 2023). For example:
A weapon found on school grounds (IDF Spokesperson website, November 7, 2023)    A pit for launching rockets located on school grounds.
Right: A pit for launching rockets located on school grounds. Left: A weapon found on school grounds (IDF Spokesperson website, November 7, 2023)
  • On November 17, 2023, IDF forces located dozens of mortar shells hidden in a kindergarten in the northern Gaza Strip. The forces raided the al-Karmel Elementary School, finding weapons inside (IDF spokesperson, November 17, 2023).
Weapons found in a school (IDF spokesperson's website, November 17, 2023)     Mortar shells found in a kindergarten.
Right: Mortar shells found in a kindergarten. Left: Weapons found in a school (IDF spokesperson’s website, November 17, 2023)
  • On December 2, 2023, IDF forces located and destroyed a Hamas operational shaft dozens of meters deep which was located in a school yard (IDF website, December 2, 2023).
Weapons found (IDF spokesperson, December 2, 2023)       Operational shaft located in the school complex.
Right: Operational shaft located in the school complex. Left: Weapons found
(IDF spokesperson, December 2, 2023)
  • On December 4, 2023, terrorist facilities were destroyed in Beit Hanoun in the northern Gaza Strip, including one located in a school from which the forces were attacked. Two tunnel shafts were also found in the school compound, one of which was booby-trapped. An explosive wreath and other weapons were also found (IDF spokesperson, December 4, 2023).
  • On December 6, 2023, the fighters located and destroyed an underground shaft and other terrorist facilities located in a school area, near a clinic and another school in the northern Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, December 6, 2023).
An IED found in a school in the northern Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, December 6, 2023)
An IED found in a school in the northern Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, December 6, 2023)
  • On December 7, 2023, in Jabalia in the northern Gaza Strip, the fighters located a school where sniper rifles, explosives, anti-tank missiles, rockets, operational shafts were found, with swastikas painted on its walls. Rocket launchers and warehouses were located near the school (IDF spokesperson, December 7, 2023).
  • On December 9, 2023, IDF forces operating in the Shejaiya neighborhood encountered a terrorist squad in the school grounds; there was an exchange fire and the terrorists were eliminated. The forces searched the school grounds, finding Kalashnikov assault rifles, grenades and ammunition in the classrooms. A shaft was also located that was part of an extensive underground tunnel (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023).
The tunnel shaft that was found in a school classroom (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)
The tunnel shaft that was found in a school classroom (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)
  • On December 16, 2023, following information about Hamas operatives hiding inside the schools, IDF fighters raided two schools in the Rimal neighborhood in Gaza City. The forces killed a number of terrorists; other terrorists who were hiding inside schools surrendered and were detained (IDF spokesperson, December 16, 2023).
Terrorists detained in the school by IDF forces (IDF spokesperson, December 16, 2023)
Terrorists detained in the school by IDF forces (IDF spokesperson, December 16, 2023)
  • IDF forces attacked targets in the Jabalia region, and due to the extensive military activity, the forces evacuated civilians from the area of a school where they had been staying. The fighters searched the school exposing many terrorists and a large quantity of weapons (IDF spokesperson, December 21, 2023).
Weapons found in the school (IDF spokesperson, December 21, 2023)
Weapons found in the school (IDF spokesperson, December 21, 2023)
  • On December 24, 2023, following intelligence information, IDF forces raided schools in Sheikh Radwan in Gaza City. In the schools, which were adjacent to mosques and residential buildings, they found hundreds of weapons, including grenades, RPG launchers, explosives and various media.
Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)     Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)
Weapons found by the forces (IDF spokesperson, December 24, 2023)
  • On December 31, 2023, during the IDF operation in Khan Yunis, the forces attacked a building from which shots were fired. The building served as an education office, a cultural center and a school. Inside, the forces located rocket launchers, documents and Hamas weapons (IDF website, December 31 2023).
  • On January 1, 2024, IDF forces operating in the central Gaza Strip found a large quantity of weapons and other signs of terrorist activity in a kindergarten (IDF spokesperson, January 1, 2024).
Weapons found in a kindergarten in the central Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, January 1, 2024)     Weapons found in a kindergarten in the central Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, January 1, 2024)
Weapons found in a kindergarten in the central Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, January 1, 2024)
Weapons found in a kindergarten in the central Gaza Strip (IDF spokesperson, January 1, 2024)
Universities
  • The universities in Gaza are an important center of Hamas’ military, political and ideological power. Academic institutions provide a shelter for the activities of senior Hamas terrorists, some of whom also hold teaching and administrative positions. They are fertile ground for recruiting operatives to the ranks of the military-terrorist wings and an incubator for training a generation of research and development personnel who, upon completing their studies, are employed in the service of Hamas’ military-terrorist wing. University facilities are used to develop and store weapons. For example, during the Hamas takeover of the Strip in 2007, violent clashes broke out between Hamas operatives, who turned the university grounds into a military compound, and Fatah operatives. During Operation Cast Lead in December 2008, the Israeli Air Force attacked the Hamas weapons development center, which was located in the laboratory building of the Faculty of Sciences at the Islamic University in Gaza City.
  • The degree of cooperation of the universities can be seen by the Islamic University, for example, which has often publicly stated it was proud that its employees were also operatives in Hamas’ military. It even published obituaries for the deaths of graduate students and lecturers. After Operation Guardian of the Walls, Yahya al-Sinwar, head of the Hamas political bureau in the Gaza Strip told academicians that thanks to them and their friends with academic degrees in various professions who worked in the ranks of the “resistance” or enriched the “resistance” with their knowledge, Hamas’ rockets currently had unprecedented precision and capabilities (al-Jazeera, June 5, 2021).
  • During the fighting in the Gaza Strip, IDF forces exposed military applications in universities. For example, a military facility was discovered at al-Quds University (IDF spokesperson, November 7, 2023).
Some of the weapons found in the area of the university (IDF spokesperson's website, November 7, 2023)     Some of the weapons found in the area of the university (IDF spokesperson's website, November 7, 2023)
Some of the weapons found in the area of the university
(IDF spokesperson’s website, November 7, 2023)
  • IDF forces destroyed buildings used by Hamas at al-Azhar University, in the Rimal neighborhood of Gaza City. A terrorist facility was found in the university complex, including a tunnel that began from the university yard and continued to a school about a kilometer away. Weapons were also found, including IEDs, rocket parts, launchers, operating systems for explosives and a variety of technological means (IDF spokesperson, December 8, 2023).
The weapons found in the university compound (IDF spokesperson, December 8, 2023)    The weapons found in the university compound (IDF spokesperson, December 8, 2023)    The weapons found in the university compound (IDF spokesperson, December 8, 2023)
The weapons found in the university compound (IDF spokesperson, December 8, 2023)
Public Buildings
  • In addition to exploiting mosques and educational institutions, the terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip also frequently use public buildings and government institutions. For example, on November 14, 2023, after the IDF forces completed the takeover of the al-Shati refugee camp in Gaza City, the IDF fighters who took over the governor’s house found equipment that had been taken from IDF positions during the battles in the cities, towns and villages near the Gaza Strip border on October 7, including weapons and documents (IDF spokesperson, November 14, 2023).
 The governor's house in the al-Shati refugee camp (IDF spokesperson, November 15, 2023)  The governor's house in the al-Shati refugee camp (IDF spokesperson, November 15, 2023)
The governor’s house in the al-Shati refugee camp (IDF spokesperson, November 15, 2023)
  • On December 18, 2023, IDF forces operating in Beit Hanoun located the route of the Beit Hanoun Battalion central terrorist tunnel which was located in the heart of the city center, between the city hall, a mosque, the soccer field and a kindergarten. A training complex that included laser training equipment was uncovered at the same location (IDF spokesperson, December 18, 2023).
  • On November 7, 2023, a tunnel shaft was exposed in the heart of an amusement park (IDF spokesperson, November 7, 2023).
 IDF activity near the park to locate the shaft (IDF spokesperson's website, November 7, 2023)  The tunnel shaft which was exposed near the amusement park.
Right: The tunnel shaft which was exposed near the amusement park. Left: IDF activity near the park to locate the shaft (IDF spokesperson’s website, November 7, 2023)
Homes of Civilians
  • During the fighting, the extent of the widespread use of private houses for fighting were revealed. The houses were intended to be hiding places for weapons and tunnel shafts. Some of the houses belonged to terrorist organization operatives and to civilians who were asked to hide equipment. Much of the equipment and weapons were placed in children’s rooms, apparently to ensure that the IDF forces would hesitate to act in them. For example:
    • In a raid on the home of a senior PIJ terrorist operative, a large quantity of weapons was found inside the children’s room; there were also pictures of Khomeini and Hassan Nasrallah (IDF spokesperson, December 13, 2023).
    • On November 16, 2023, IDF forces raided the home of a Hamas terrorist operative who belonged to a terrorist cell in the Khan Yunis area. A large quantity of weapons was found in the house, including missiles, IEDs, and tens of kilograms of explosives. Several rockets were hidden inside a bed in a children’s room. In addition, the IDF spokesperson revealed a conversation between two PIJ terrorist operatives who discussed how weapons were transported in a baby carriage (IDF website, November 16, 2023).
Weapons found in the children's room (IDF website, November 16, 2023)     Weapons found in the children's room (IDF website, November 16, 2023)
Weapons found in the children’s room (IDF website, November 16, 2023)
Other weapons found in the house (IDF website, November 16, 2023)    Other weapons found in the house (IDF website, November 16, 2023)
Other weapons found in the house (IDF website, November 16, 2023)
    • On November 20, 2023, IDF forces located a cache of weapons and an anti-tank missile hidden under a baby bed in a private home (IDF spokesperson, November 20, 2023).
An anti-tank missile hidden under a baby bed (IDF spokesperson, November 21, 2023)   The weapons found in the terrorist's house.    The weapons found in the terrorist's house.  
The weapons found in the terrorist’s house. Left: An anti-tank missile hidden under a baby bed (IDF spokesperson, November 21, 2023)
    • On November 23, 2023, IDF forces operating on the outskirts of Jabalia in the northern Gaza Strip located a building which was linked to a senior Hamas terrorist, where weapons were found in his bedrooms and under his children’s beds (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023).
The weapons found under the children's beds (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)    The weapons found under the children's beds (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)
The weapons found under the children’s beds (IDF spokesperson, November 23, 2023)
    • On December 17, 2023, in a search carried out by IDF forces in the Jabaliya area, they located an operational tunnel shaft inside a children’s room located in the basement of the building. It was a strategic shaft with stairs built into it; it was destroyed by the forces (IDF website, 17 in December 2023).
A tunnel shaft found in a children's room (IDF spokesperson, December 17, 2023)    A tunnel shaft found in a children's room (IDF spokesperson, December 17, 2023)
A tunnel shaft found in a children’s room (IDF spokesperson, December 17, 2023)
  • On December 21, 2023, IDF forces operating in a neighborhood south of Gaza City, located weapons, some of which were hidden inside dolls and under children’s beds (IDF spokesperson, December 21, 2023).
Children's belongings in which weapons were found (IDF spokesperson, December 21, 2023)
Children’s belongings in which weapons were found (IDF spokesperson, December 21, 2023)
  • On December 31, 2023, during the IDF operation in Khan Yunis, the forces located large quantities of weapons, including grenades and ammunition, which they found inside a closet in a bedroom (IDF website, December 31, 2023).
Weapons located in a closet (IDF website, December 31, 2023)    Weapons located in a closet (IDF website, December 31, 2023)
Weapons located in a closet (IDF website, December 31, 2023)
Clinics and Infirmaries
  • Hamas and the other terrorist organizations not only used the hospitals in the Gaza Strip for military-terrorist purposes, they also used the clinics and infirmaries.[6] For example, on December 19, 2023, IDF forces operating in Khan Yunis located an IED that had been planted inside a clinic near a school in the heart of Shejaiya (IDF spokesperson, December 19, 2023).
An IED found in a clinic (IDF spokesperson, December 19, 2023)
An IED found in a clinic (IDF spokesperson, December 19, 2023)
Exploiting the Facilities of International Humanitarian Aid Organizations
  • In addition to UNRWA facilities, Hamas and the other terrorist organizations exploit the facilities of other humanitarian aid organizations operating in the Gaza Strip, especially to hide weapons. For example, IDF forces in the northern Gaza Strip found about 30 standard  Grad and other rockets hidden under UNRWA boxes (IDF spokesperson, December 2, 2023).
The rockets found under the boxes (IDF spokesperson, December 2, 2023)    UNRWA boxes.
Right: UNRWA boxes. Left: The rockets found under the boxes
(IDF spokesperson, December 2, 2023)
  • On December 8, 2023, IDF forces located weapons in an UNRWA school that were camouflaged inside classrooms, some of them hidden in UNRWA sacks. A teddy bear with sniper weapons and ammunition inside was also located on the school premises (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023).
The weapons found in a teddy bear (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)    The weapons found in a teddy bear (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)
The weapons found in a teddy bear (IDF spokesperson, December 9, 2023)
The weapons found in an UNRWA sack (IDF website, December 9, 2023)   The weapons found in an UNRWA sack (IDF website, December 9, 2023)
The weapons found in an UNRWA sack (IDF website, December 9, 2023)
  • On December 11, 2023, IDF forces operating in the Jabaliya refugee camp located explosive devices, a Kalashnikov and an RPG hidden in UNRWA sacks inside a residence (IDF spokesperson, December 11, 2023).
IEDs hidden in an UNRWA inside a residence (IDF spokesperson, December 11, 2022)
IEDs hidden in an UNRWA inside a residence (IDF spokesperson, December 11, 2022)

A vest with the UN on it, found in Shejaiya (December 11, 2023)
A vest with the UN on it, found in Shejaiya (December 11, 2023)

[1] Click https://www.terrorism-info.org.il/en to subscribe and receive the ITIC's daily updates as well as its other publications.
[2] “Hybrid Threats: Hamas' use of human shields in Gaza," June 6, 2019. https://stratcomcoe.org/pdfjs/?file=/publications/download/hamas_human_shields.pdf?zoom=page-fit
[3] For further information, see the ITIC November 17 and 11 reports, "Hamas use of the civilian population as human shields and Gaza’s civilian facilities for terrorism" and "Hamas Exploitation of Hospitals for Military-Terrorist Purposes Shifa Hospital as a test case."
[4] For further information, see the March 2009 ITIC report, "The use of mosques for military and political purposes by Hamas and other terrorist organizations and Islamic groups: according to international laws governing of armed conflict, mosques used for military purposes lose the special protection afforded hous."
[5] For further information, see the July 2014 ITIC report, "Hamas and other terrorist organizations in the Gaza Strip use schools for military-terrorist purposes: The case of rockets found hidden in an UNRWA school during Operation Protective Edge."
[6] For further information, see the December 2023 ITIC report, "Hamas Exploitation of Hospitals for Military-Terrorist Purposes Shifa Hospital as a test case."