Lebanon

Hezbollah held a large-scale three-day exercise in south Lebanon.

It was held close to the time of broad IDF maneuvers in the Galilee. It meant to send a message of deterrence to Israel that Hezbollah had rehabilitated its operational capabilities damaged by the second Lebanon war, including its rocket capabilities.
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The road to the second Lebanon war: the Lebanese scene in the years 2000-2006

The six years preceding the second Lebanon war saw great turmoil on the Lebanese scene and in the history of Syrian and Israeli involvement in Lebanon. The developments in that period of time were influenced by three dramatic events that occurred both inside and outside of Lebanon in the year 2000
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Achievement for Fuad Siniora’s government:

Victory over Fatah al-Islam, the Al-Qaeda branch in Lebanon, after three and a half months of battles. The Lebanese army completed its takeover of the Nahr al-Bared refugee camp in north Lebanon, which for the past year was a center for global jihad activities.
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One year since the acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 1701, which ended the second Lebanon war: An interim report

UN Security Council Resolution 1701, passed August 12, 2006, marked the end of the second Lebanon war and created a new situation on the ground in south Lebanon.
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Rockets fired on Kiryat Shmona for the first time since the second Lebanon war

On June 17, 2007, three rockets were fired from the Taybeh-Addayseh region on Kiryat Shmona – the first such incident since the second Lebanon war. There were no casualties; however, some property was damaged. Hezbollah denied any involvement in the attack. It is our assessment that that provocative attack was perpetrated by elements related to
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The confrontation in northern Lebanon between the Lebanese army and Fath al-Islam, the Al-Qaeda offshoot in Lebanon

On May 20-24, fierce fighting took place between the Lebanese army and a terrorist organization calling itself “Fath al-Islam”. The clashes occurred in the northern Lebanese city of Tripoli and in Nahr al-Bared, a refugee camp located on the city’s outskirts. Some 80 people were killed in the clashes, including about 25 Fath al-Islam operatives
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Lebanon

Lebanon is a small country with a population of only about 4.1 million. Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, Lebanon borders on Israel in the south and Syria in the east and north. It gained its independence from France on November 22, 1943. Due to Lebanon’s varied ethnic composition, its history is rife with schisms, conflicts and civil wars based on sectarian allegiances. Since its independence, Lebanon has had a unique political system of ethnic distribution with a parliamentary democracy based on ethnic-sectarian-religious representation. The most important offices are divided among the various religious groups, in accordance with the national charter of 1943.


Lebanon’s social complexity, the weakness of its central government, and the social and economic gaps between the various ethnic groups led to the rise of many armed sectarian-political militias, some of which turned to terrorism. The most prominent Shiite terrorist organization in Lebanon is Hezbollah, which was founded in the summer of 1982 during the First Lebanon War. It is not only a terrorist organization which owes its allegiance to the Iranian regime, it has also been incorporated into the Lebanese political system.


Lebanon has traditionally served as an arena for foreign forces, both Middle Eastern and international. In the past, Syria’s intervention in Lebanon was most conspicuous. Today, Iran’s intervention is most conspicuous: it provides Hezbollah in Lebanon with weapons, ammunition, financing and military training. The border between Israel and Lebanon has undergone some tense periods and several confrontations where IDF forces entered the Lebanese territory. Since the Second Lebanon War (2006), the border between Israel and Lebanon has been relatively quiet, a situation exploited by Hezbollah to advance its military buildup and intensely intervene in the civil war in Syria, under Iranian direction.