The civilian infrastructure established by Hezbollah among the Shiite population in Lebanon: the city of Bint Jbeil as a case study

Since its inception, Hezbollah, with massive Iranian assistance, has invested considerable resources in deepening its influence among the Shiite population in Lebanon. This is in order to turn the Shiite society into a “resistance society,” i.e., a society that will unite around Hezbollah, support its military activity against Israel and simultaneously strengthen its political influence in the internal Lebanese arena. During nearly 40 years of existence, Hezbollah has devoted considerable resources to turning the Shiite community into a “resistance society” through the establishment of an extensive infrastructure of civilian institutions that assist the population in all areas of life.

Iranian Subversion in Bahrain: The United States designates the Saraya al-Mukhtar as a Bahraini terrorist organization handled by Iran

On December 15, 2020, the American State Department announced it was designating the Bahraini terrorist organization Saraya al-Mukhtar as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist organization. According to the announcement, the organization receives "financial and logistic support" from the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps. The organization's "self-described goal is to depose the Bahraini government with the intention of paving the way for Iran to exert greater influence in Bahrain" (State Department website, December 15, 2020).

More countries have recently declared all of Hezbollah a terrorist organization but some EU countries still refrain from doing so.

On March 1, 2019, Britain designated all of Hezbollah (i.e., both its military and political infrastructures) as a terrorist organization. Thus, Britain joined Israel, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands. In the wake of Britain, a new wave of similar declarations began, with American encouragement, from European and Latin American countries.

Hezbollah expands its banking services due to US pressure on the Lebanese banking system

Hezbollah maintains an extensive network of social foundations in the Shiite community in Lebanon. These foundations deal with healthcare, education, finance, welfare, and communications. They also support Hezbollah’s military infrastructure and serve as a means of disseminating Hezbollah’s ideology and strengthening its position among the Shiite community and in the internal Lebanese arena.

United States sanctions two of Hezbollah’s construction companies. Both are related to Jihad al-Bina, a major association in Hezbollah’s civilian infrastructure

On September 17, 2020, the US Department of the Treasury imposed sanctions on two Lebanese companies, Arch Consulting and Meamar Construction. According to the US Department of the Treasury, this is because these companies are owned, controlled or directed by Hezbollah. In addition to these two companies, sanctions were also imposed on Sultan Khalifah As’ad, a Hezbollah Executive Council official who is closely associated with both companies (US Department of the Treasury website, September 17, 2020).

Law, politics and Terrorism: Special Tribunal for Lebanon for the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri – the verdict and its weaknesses

On February 14, 2005, former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated by a truck bomb detonated near his convoy on the Beirut promenade. The blast left 22 people dead and more than 200 wounded. Blame was directed at the Assad regime (which was in control of Lebanon at the time) and Hezbollah, its political ally, both of which had a clear interest in eliminating Hariri, a prominent opponent of the “Syrian order” in Lebanon and of Hezbollah. Hariri’s assassination led to political turmoil in Lebanon.


Hezbollah is a Shi’ite Muslim organization with a dual identity, being both a terrorist organization supported by Iran and a Lebanese political party. Hezbollah was founded by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards in 1982 to compete with Amal, an important Shi’ite Muslim militia active during the Lebanese civil war. When the IDF withdrew from Lebanon at the end of the First Lebanon War (1985), Hezbollah became the dominant organization in south Lebanon and later throughout the entire Shi’ite population in Lebanon. In 1992, Hezbollah entered Lebanese politics and its representatives were elected to the parliament.

Hezbollah is a terrorist organization attacking mainly Israel, from over the Lebanese border and abroad. For the most part, Hezbollah attacked northern Israeli cities with rockets. However, with direction and backing from Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Hezbollah also carried out terrorist attacks against Jewish and Israeli targets abroad, the most serious of which were the attack on the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires (March 17, 1992) and the attack on the Jewish Community Center, also in Buenos Aires (July 18, 1994). Hezbollah has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United States and the European Union.

After the IDF withdrew from south Lebanon in May 2000, Hezbollah took control of the entire region. With Iranian support it constructed a vast military infrastructure in Lebanon, including an extensive artillery layout and precision missiles which threaten the Israeli home front. Before the Second Lebanon War (2006), Hezbollah carried out sporadic attacks along the border. Since June 2006 (the Second Lebanon War), it has maintained a relatively low profile.

Hezbollah continues to increase its influence as a political power in Lebanon, and at the same time reinforce its military infrastructure. In recent years, Hezbollah has been involved in the fighting in Syria as part of the Iranian-led camp supporting the Syrian regime.

Ever since its establishment, the State of Israel has been forced to deal with waves of terror of various types and at various levels of intensity directed against it and its citizens. These waves of terror are carried out by various Palestinian organizations that have been conducting the terror campaign against Israel for decades. Over the years, the activity of Palestinian terrorist organizations has caused many losses among Israel’s civilian population. The activity of Palestinian terrorist organizations was not limited to the borders of the State of Israel, but was carried out abroad as well (mainly in 1968-1978, the peak years of global terrorist activity).

There are ideological differences between the Palestinian terrorist organizations. Some of them are Palestinian terrorist organizations with an Islamic ideology and some have a secular ideology. However, the terrorist activity that they carry out appears to share the same goals. The main goals are: to disrupt the lives of the Israeli civilian population and undermine its security, to harm Israel’s economy and image, and to place the Palestinian issue and its ideology on the global agenda.

During the years of the conflict, the Palestinian terrorist organizations have attempted to carry out attacks in almost every possible arena (land, sea, air, in Israel and abroad), refining their methods and modus operandi. The bases of many terrorist organizations are located in the Gaza Strip, but there are also networks operating in Judea and Samaria. Some of the organizations also have a presence in Arab countries, and some receive support from countries or organizations. Over the years of Palestinian terror, the terrorist organization map has changed. Some of the terrorist organizations have disappeared or died down, but new terrorist organizations have emerged in their stead.