Hezbollah holds a military display in south Lebanon and threatens Israel

On May 21, 2023, Hezbollah held a military exercise in south Lebanon using live fire, which was well-covered by the media. The organization displayed its capabilities, reiterated its intention to obliterate the State of Israel and promoted the "unity of the arenas" narrative. Hezbollah operatives simulated breaking through Israel's border, taking control of an Israeli post or community and abducting soldiers. Weapons such as multiple-barrel rocket launchers mounted on armored vehicles, quadcopters and machine guns were displayed, but no missiles or UAVs. In ITIC assessment, Hezbollah tried to send a message that it would not lay down its arms or abandon its role as "Lebanon's defender," and promote the "unity of the arenas" narrative to the region in general and its "resistance axis" collaborators in particular.

Spotlight on Terrorism: Hezbollah, Lebanon and Syria (May 5-18, 2023)

Hezbollah plans to hold a live-fire military exercise near the Israeli border on May 21, 2023. On May 12, 2023, Hezbollah secretary general Hassan Nasrallah gave a speech in which he represented the most recent round of fighting in the Gaza Strip as an achievement for the resistance axis. He also warned that any targeted killing in the future would not go without a response. The Lebanese minister of energy announced that in September 2023 the TotalEnergies and ENI oil and natural gas-drilling companies would begin drilling in Block 9 off the coast of Lebanon. Reservations are increasing in Lebanon regarding the candidacy of Suleiman Frangieh for president; he is close to Hezbollah and the Syrian regime.

The Nujaba Movement – the Movement of the Noble Ones: One of the dominant pro-Iranian militias in Iraq

The Nujaba Movement (or the Movement of the Noble Ones, is an Iraqi Shiite pro-Iranian militia established in 2013 by Sheikh Akram Abbas al-Kaabi and the Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Qods Force. It is one of the largest militias in the Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF).The Nujaba Movement numbers 8,000-10,000 operatives organized in three brigades, two based in Iraq and one in Syria. Regarding Israel, it should be noted that the militia is part of the Axis of Resistance led by Iran, and its goal is to act to “liberate” the Golan Heights and destroy the State of Israel.

Iranian Activities in East Africa Nature and Significance

Iran engages in both overt and covert activities in East Africa. Its overt activities are the establishment of political, economic and ideological-educational ties with countries in the region to strengthen its local status, contribute to the Iranian economy by circumventing the oppressive sanctions imposed by the United States and other Western countries, and to counterbalance Saudi Arabia's growing influence and status in the region. In ITIC assessment, Iranian activities pose two significant challenges for Israel. Indirectly, they threaten Israel's relations and cooperation with East African countries, and directly, Iran's covert activities mark Israel interests, facilities and civilians as attack targets, as the prevention of such Iranian initiatives has shown in recent years.

Spotlight on Iran (April 27-10 May, 2023)

Iranian President paid an official visit to Syria. Fifteen agreements for bilateral cooperation were signed at a meeting with Syrian President Bashar Assad. While in Syria Raisi also met with families of pro-Iranian militia fighters, the heads of the Palestinian factions in Damascus and a delegation of Hezbollah officials. At a meeting with the Syrian defense minister, Iran's defense minister expressed Iran's willingness to supply Syria with advanced weapons. The head of Iran's Civil Aviation Organization announced that Iran was prepared to repair and renovate Syria's airfields, including the international airport in Damascus. Sources in eastern Syria reported the recent formation of two new pro-Iranian militias. Iran condemned Israel's targeted killings of three leading PIJ terrorists and issued an urgent call for the Muslim world to undertake measures that would deter Israel.

Spotlight on Terrorism: Hezbollah, Lebanon and Syria (April 21 – May 4, 2023)

The Iranian foreign minister, paid an official visit to Lebanon. He met with Hezbollah leader and toured south Lebanon near the Israeli border. On the sidelines of the visit he met with PIJ.Syrian sources reported Israeli Air Force attacks on Hezbollah and pro-Iranian Shi'ite militia targets in Syria. After the attacks Hezbollah forces reportedly redeployed in Syria.A Jerusalem district court sentenced an east Jerusalem dentist to five years in prison; he was convicted of spying for Hezbollah.A new study revealed sources of Hezbollah's funding and its involvement in the international drug trade.


Hezbollah is a Shi’ite Muslim organization with a dual identity, being both a terrorist organization supported by Iran and a Lebanese political party. Hezbollah was founded by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards in 1982 to compete with Amal, an important Shi’ite Muslim militia active during the Lebanese civil war. When the IDF withdrew from Lebanon at the end of the First Lebanon War (1985), Hezbollah became the dominant organization in south Lebanon and later throughout the entire Shi’ite population in Lebanon. In 1992, Hezbollah entered Lebanese politics and its representatives were elected to the parliament.

Hezbollah is a terrorist organization attacking mainly Israel, from over the Lebanese border and abroad. For the most part, Hezbollah attacked northern Israeli cities with rockets. However, with direction and backing from Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Hezbollah also carried out terrorist attacks against Jewish and Israeli targets abroad, the most serious of which were the attack on the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires (March 17, 1992) and the attack on the Jewish Community Center, also in Buenos Aires (July 18, 1994). Hezbollah has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United States and the European Union.

After the IDF withdrew from south Lebanon in May 2000, Hezbollah took control of the entire region. With Iranian support it constructed a vast military infrastructure in Lebanon, including an extensive artillery layout and precision missiles which threaten the Israeli home front. Before the Second Lebanon War (2006), Hezbollah carried out sporadic attacks along the border. Since June 2006 (the Second Lebanon War), it has maintained a relatively low profile.

Hezbollah continues to increase its influence as a political power in Lebanon, and at the same time reinforce its military infrastructure. In recent years, Hezbollah has been involved in the fighting in Syria as part of the Iranian-led camp supporting the Syrian regime.

Ever since its establishment, the State of Israel has been forced to deal with waves of terror of various types and at various levels of intensity directed against it and its citizens. These waves of terror are carried out by various Palestinian organizations that have been conducting the terror campaign against Israel for decades. Over the years, the activity of Palestinian terrorist organizations has caused many losses among Israel’s civilian population. The activity of Palestinian terrorist organizations was not limited to the borders of the State of Israel, but was carried out abroad as well (mainly in 1968-1978, the peak years of global terrorist activity).

There are ideological differences between the Palestinian terrorist organizations. Some of them are Palestinian terrorist organizations with an Islamic ideology and some have a secular ideology. However, the terrorist activity that they carry out appears to share the same goals. The main goals are: to disrupt the lives of the Israeli civilian population and undermine its security, to harm Israel’s economy and image, and to place the Palestinian issue and its ideology on the global agenda.

During the years of the conflict, the Palestinian terrorist organizations have attempted to carry out attacks in almost every possible arena (land, sea, air, in Israel and abroad), refining their methods and modus operandi. The bases of many terrorist organizations are located in the Gaza Strip, but there are also networks operating in Judea and Samaria. Some of the organizations also have a presence in Arab countries, and some receive support from countries or organizations. Over the years of Palestinian terror, the terrorist organization map has changed. Some of the terrorist organizations have disappeared or died down, but new terrorist organizations have emerged in their stead.